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Copy of The Majesty of Mali
Transcript of Copy of The Majesty of Mali
under Sunni Ali (1464-92)
under Askia the Great (1493-1528)
under Askia Dawud (1549-82)
The Majesty of Mali and Songhay Achievements
The Songhay Achievement:
The importance of Gao
The Grow of Songhay: Sunni Ali
New Methods of Goverment: Askia the Great
Who is Mansa Kankan Musa?!!?!
The Government of Mali
Ruler of Mali Who expanded his empire to Middle Niger, Timbuktu & Gao and Walata. Sent his troops to Taghaza, a great salt producing place
Developed a single Law and Order system that remained in the land 12 years after his death
This system was done so successfully, Moroccan writer, Ibn Batuta found "complete and general safety in the land" - 12 years after Mansa Musa died
The Dyula (Wangara) were muslim traders who benefited from the kings expansion
As the kings before him, Mansa Musa was a muslim. Although he was muslim, Mansa Musa supported thee other religion of the Mandinka as well as Islam. Different religious ceremonies were allowed in his court
Mansa Musa was a very generous man, esp. in Egypt
In Mansa Musa journey through Cairo, which began in 1324, he was remembered and admired by the people
He took with him so much gold and gave away so many "golden gifts" that he disrupted the Cairo Market
Described by North African scholar as "the most powerful, the richest, the most fortunate, the most feared by his enemies and the most able to do good for those around him".
This was a political success and made Mansa Musa one of the greatest statesmen in the history of africa
The Rulers of Songhay
These men were men of skill and energy who began trading in various parts of West Africa
Mali drew power and reputation from its control over the many trade of precious goods such as gold, salts, ivory, and kola nuts
Under Mansa Musa, Mali ambassadors were established in Morocco, Egypt, and other places
Development of Trade:
Timbuktu & Jenne
Mali's captial was often visited by North African and Egyptian scholars. One named Saheli designed new Mosques in Gao and Timbuktu and designed a palace for the emperor
The fashion of building houses in brick now were popular among the rich and wealthy in the cities in West Sudan
"The most civilized, intelligent, and respected..."
Strength and wealth of the Songhay government was based on the big trading cities such as these.
Like Ghana, Mali was ruled by kings who were the heads of the important descent-lines or leading families
The kings ruled the different parts of the empire, called provinces, through governors
The king had officials that came both from important families and unimportant families
When Timbuktu was founded over 800 years ago, it was one of the weathiest markets of West Africa.
The town was known for trade and its' learning scholars; however, life was not safe enough to make it the center of a big state.
Top Officials (Noblemen):
Hari-farma: fishing on the Niger
Sao-farma: looking afer the forests of the empire
Babili-farma: minister of agriculture
Khalissi-farma: minister of finance
Rivals and Successors
The location of the town caused for geographical weakness.
Timbuktu first belonged to the Mali empire until it was invaded by Tuareg. Just a few years later in 1458, it became territory of the Songhay empire.
oday, Timbuktu is part of the Republic of Mali. its location made it difficult for the town to defend itself from Tuareg raiders.
Despite conflicts, Timbuktu remained a city which flourished in the arts of peace, writing, theology, and development of law.
Kangaba and Origins of Mali
Kangaba was founded sometime before 1000 AD
The very success of Mali's became its own downfall
Kangaba was a little state that eventually turned into the mighty empire of Mali
The spread of metal-working and trade, the growing of the ideas of kingship and of strong central government, and the pressures of wealth and trading rivalry
Timbuktu was the middleman town between Westen Sudan and N. America while Jenne was the middleman between Western Sudan and the forest lands of the South.
Jenne, unlike Timbuktu, was able to retain its independence until it was taken over by Sunni Ali. Inhabitants built high walls surrounding the city to keep it protected.
Through Jenne, many goods passed through to the caravan-traders who awaited for them in trading cities. It was through Jenne that many goods of North Africa were able to reach Southward.
Kangaba had the main supplies of gold and would send yearly gifts to the Ghana Empire for friendly protection against enemies
People saw that there were advantages in being free to run their own affairs, thinking they could do better on their own
2 Sided Interest
Ghanas government at the time needed gold and the traders who dealt with the gold of Wangara needed a market
Mansa Mari Diata II
Sadly this market was destroyed by revolts that took place within Ghana and attacks from the outside
The Moroccan Invasion: Firearms & Disaster
Mansa Suleyman succeeded Mansa Musa and continued Political strength, but all the good days were over when Mansa Mari Diata II followed
During the reign of Muhammad II, the Hausa states revolted against the Songhay. In 1582, however, Morocco sent a force to seize the salt deposits that were located in Taghaza.
Taghaza was located in the North of the Songhay empire and Morocco had sent over 200 soldiers with unknown weapons.
The arquebus was an early form of a musket never before seen.
Described as a "bad ruler who oppressed the people, depleted the treasury, and nearly pulled down the structure of the government"
Captured Kumbi, Ghanas Capital as well as trading routes
Kangaba had to conduct business through him now
He was followed by rules who didnt really do better than he had
Kangaba frustrated with un-safety won independence in 1240
By the end of the 15th century, Mali had no power to the east of Segu.
Growth of Mali
Sumanguru the Ruler
Harsh taxation, bad governmnt, seizure of Mandinka Women, tyrant like
Niani, the capital of the old empire, was still a large and prosperous city. Also, the Mali traders (Dyula companies) were the most enterprising and successful merchants of all the western and central regions of West Africa
Had a repuatation as a dangerous magician
so the ruler of Kangaba fled
Exciled Prince of Mandinka returned with an army to fight Sumanguru and regain power
Battle at Kirina
Sundiata and Sumanguru had a huge battle with their armies and Sundiata won
Became master of a New Empire which was located in Niani which is the capital of Kangaba
Mali- "where the king resides" absorbed the name Kangaba and the Empire of Mali was born!
The Rulers of Mali
Sundiata was the
of the Empire of Mali, but
the 1st of Malis kings
Barmandana ruled 1st in 1050 AD, he became Muslim and made pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are suppose to make
Sundiata ruled from 1235- 1260 AD
Son Uli - 1260 to 1277
After Uli it was his two brothers
Wah and Khalifa
Both were said to be weak rulers
Khalifa was revolted against and killed
Abu Bakr ruled until 1298
In 1298 throne was seized by a freed 'slave of the court' named Sakuru
He became one of Malis strongest ruler until 1308
ALL nations of Sudan stood in awe of Mali under his rule and Merchants of North Africa would travel to his country
And then in 1312 another great ruler Kankan Musa
ruled until 1337
New Method of Government: Askia the Great
• Two months after the death of Sunni Ali, his son, Sunni Baru, was named the ruler of Songhay
• Baru’s reign only lasted fourteen months when he was defeated by Muhammad Turay, who became Askia the Great
• Askian carried the commercial and political power of the empire to the greatest expansion
• Askian the Great was remembered because he ruled the town as a strict Muslim
• His laws and methods were accordingly with the Muslim’s believes
• Muhammad developed even more the changes made by Sunni Ali
• He built up a machinery of central government that was stronger and more detailed in its work than any known in the Western Sudan
• Muhammad also carried Sunni Ali’s plans and brought these plans to a point where he successfully united the whole central region of the Western Sudan.
• Muhammad’s reign lasted 35 yearsv and it ended when he became blind in 1528
• Muhammad's son, Musa, took the power and Muhammad died in 1538
The Growth of Songhay: Sunni Ali:
Songhay people are part of the political life of the modern republics of Niger and Mali
Songhay has the largest states in West Africa
Songhay conquered many other states of north and south of the Niger
Songhay's favorable position along the great river allowed Songhay to achieve some extend to communication and chances of trade
Sunni Ali became king of Gao in around 1464
Ali is seen as a great leader of foresight
Ali’s main concept was to unify the Western Sudan
In his reign of 35 years, he was never defeated
Sunni Ali died in November 1492.
Causes of Conflict
The ruler of Morocco, Sultan Mulay, began exploring for power. He believed he could steal the wealth of Songhay by building an army and attacking the empire in 1591.
Army composed of 4,600 men many of which were Spanish Muslims, Portugese prisoners, and Spanish prisoners. These prisoners chose to fight rather than accept imprisonment.
The Moroccan army crossed the Sahara and made their way to Songhay.
The current Songhay ruler lost multiple battles with numerous casualties. Songhay did not give in and attacked many Moroccan posts yet they were still never successful.
The Songhay government was too weak to overcome the battles that occured and could not regain power..
The Mossi States
These states developed an independent life of their own and remained distant from the imperial systems.
They were a danger to the Northern states but in 1400 they acted as mediators of trade for the cities of Niger and the forest lands.
By 1500, 5 Mossi states emerged, all of which were very strong.
The Mossi states were good examples of the political stability in West Africa. The Mossi rejected the conversion to Islam and remaind independent states with their own cultures, beliefs, and military knowledge..
Songhay people were established at Gao at the beginning of the 17th century
The discovery of old tombstones provided the oldest example of writing so far known in West Africa
These tombstones also reveled that Gao was an important city ruled by prosperous kings who were converted to Muslims
In 1010, Gao entered to its period of growth when the capital of Songhay was transferred from Kukya to Gao and the king of Songhay, Dia Kossoi, was converted to Islam
Because Gao had a very favorable position for trade, the city begun to expand its power beyond the land and the trade became the grownth
Dia Kossoi's reign ended when the Mali Empire took independence of Gao
Mali's only ruled Gao for 50 years
By 1335, the dia-line ended and this lead to a new line, Sunnior Shi
Around 1975, the second Sunni whose name was Suleiman-Mar, one back Gao's independence from Mali
Among all the rulers and leaders of Gao, Sunni Ali was the one who build a unified system of law and order, central government and peaceful trade