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Project Quality Management
Transcript of Project Quality Management
“Quality means doing it right when no one is looking.”
― - Henry Ford
What is Quality?
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Quality is perceived value...
...in this case, the ability to anticipate situations
Generates ideas by comparing specific
project practices or product characteristics
to those of other projects or products within or outside the performing organization.
The main outputs:
Identifying the vital
that account for the
most quality problems
in a system
Statistical sampling involves choosing
part of a population of interest
The target for perfection is the achievement of
no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities
Six Sigma & Std Dev
is any instance where the product or service fails to meet customer requirements
Quality is “the degree to which a set of inherent
characteristics fulfills requirements
Fitness for use: A product can be used as it was intended
Conformance to requirements: The project’s processes and products
meet written specifications
Consumer's opinion of a product's (or a brand's) ability to fulfill his or her expectations
Important to prevent defects by:
Design of Experiments
Planning a process that ensures the appropriate outcome
Training and indoctrinating quality people
Selecting proper materials
Also applies to cost and schedule trade-offs
Documenting factors that directly contribute to meeting customer requirements
Identifies which variables have the most influence on the overall outcome of a process
Ease of performing maintenance on a product
Degree to which a system performs its intended function
System’s special characteristics that appeal to users
Screens and reports the system generates.
How well a product or service performs the customer’s intended use
Ability to perform as expected under normal conditions
A fully structured review of specific quality management activities that help identify
that could improve performance on current or future projects.
Continuous Quality Improvement - Kaizen
A control chart is a graphic display of data that illustrates the
results of a process over time
Cost of Quality
Tests each individual component (often a program) to ensure it is as defect-free as possible
Closed-loop process for continued improvement that is scientific & fact based
Some tools and techniques include:
Quality Control Charts
Pareto diagrams are histograms, or column charts representing a frequency distribution
, meaning that 80 percent of problems are often due to 20 percent of the causes.
Be sure to consult with an expert when using statistical analysis
size of a sample
depends on how representative you want the sample to be
How much is enough?
Five-phase improvement process called DMAIC
The principles can apply to a wide variety of processes
Problem/opportunity, process & requirements
Define measures, then collect, compile & display data
Process details to find improvement opportunities
Track and verify the stability of the improvements
Generate solutions & ideas for improving the problem
Standard deviation measures how much
exists in a distribution of data
Standard deviation - key factor in determining the
of defective units found in a population
represents the number of units handled correctly through the process steps
THE SEVEN RUN RULE
Caused by non-random events
Caused by random events
Quality control charts allow you to determine whether a process is in control or out of control
The main use of control charts is to
defects, rather than to
detect or reject
Identify causes of non-random events & adjust the process to correct
Processes that are in control do not need to be adjusted
OUT OF CONTROL
If seven data points in a row are all below the mean, above the mean, or are all increasing or decreasing, then the process needs to be examined for non-random problems
User Acceptance Testing
is an independent test performed by end users prior to accepting the delivered system
Tests the entire system as one entity
Occurs between unit and system testing to test functionally grouped components.
Cost of Non-Conformance
Cost of Conformance
Delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for use
Taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectations
Measurement and Test Equipment
Monitoring & Controlling