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Traits and Inheritance

Discusses genetic topics of genotype, phenotype, punnett square, probability, and incomplete dominance.

Lauren Feronti

on 17 April 2011

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Transcript of Traits and Inheritance

Traits and Inheritance Gene: a short segment of DNA that contains the instructions for a single trait of an organism.
Each parent gives one set of genes to the offspring.
Offspring have 2 forms of the same gene for every characteristic.
Allele: different form of a gene.
Dominant= A Recessive= a Possible Answers: hair color, skin color, hair type, ect. Phenotype: an organism's appearance
Example: In Mendel's peas, the phenotypes of the plant include flower color, seed color, seed texture, and more.
Can you name any examples of phenotypes in humans? Albinism is a disorder which prevents hair, skin, and eyes from having an normal color. Genotype: genetic make-up of an organism.
Alleles are classified as dominant or recessive
Dominant genotypes are shown through the phenotype of the organism. Dominant genotypes mask recessive genotypes.
Example: AA Aa
Recessive genotypes are only shown in the phenotype if there are 2 recessive traits present.
Example: aa Alleles are classified as homozygous and heterozygous.
Homozygous: an individual that has identical alleles for a trait
Example: AA, aa
Heterozygous: an individual that has 2 different alleles for a trait
Example: Aa Punnett Square: Used to organize all of the possible combinations of offspring from particular parents.
"True breeding" parent generation is always written as homozygous dominant (AA) or homozygous recessive (aa).
The offspring of the parent generation are all the same with the genotype of Aa and the phenotype of the dominant trait. Making and Solving a Punnett Square. 1. Draw a square and divide it into 4 sections
11. Write the letters of the represented alleles from the parents along top and left side of the boxes.
111. Fill in the 4 boxes by combining the genes from the corresponding row and column. (Write the capitol letter first)
1v. Each of the 4 boxes represents a possible offspring. Probability: the mathematical chance that something will happen.
Written as a fraction
Prob.= (# of times an event is expect to happen)/ (# of times an even could happen)
Example: If you toss a coin, What is the probability of tossing a head?
Example: If you roll a dice, what is the probability of rolling a 2? 1/2 1/6 Calculating Probability: the probability of tossing 2 heads in a row, multiple the probability of the first head by the probability of the second head
Example: (1/2)*(1/2)=(1/4)
Genotype Probability
For each offspring of a Pp x Pp cross has a 50% chance of receiving either allele from either parent.
The probability of obtaining a homozygous recessive trait is (1/2) * (1/2) =(1/4)
Incomplete Dominance- one trait is not completely dominant over another.
• Example: a cross between a true breeding red snapdragon and a true breeding white snapdragon. Once crossed both alleles of the gene have some degree of influence.
One Gene, Many Traits
One gene can influence more than one trait.
Example: The white fur and blue eyes of a white tiger are caused by one gene.
Many Genes, One Trait
Some traits, such as the color of skin, hair, and eyes, are the result of several genes acting together to create one trait.
Example: Human eye color is determined by at least 2 genes.
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