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Marion Sutherland

on 28 April 2017

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Transcript of BTEC SPORT LEVEL 3 - UNIT 2

Assignment 2.2
Describe the long term effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal and energy systems

Describe the long term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

Explain the long term effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems

Skeletal system
- they are not static, they can become stronger and denser as a result of the demands placed on them through exercise. This can increase the bone mineral content (calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate).
the type of exercise to build bone is strength training and load bearing exercise that work against gravity. E.g. tennis basketball walking and running. Bones are strengthened as a result of the stress that exercise gives to them which leads to greater quantities of calcium and collagen being deposited within them. This can help reduce the risk of osteoporosis which is degenerative condition. The supporting connective tissue around the joints is also strengthened.

– ligament increase their ability to cope with loads through the increase in collagen fibres which are produced by fibroblasts (cells within the connective tissue of the ligament)

Hyaline cartilage
- this is the cartilage that cover the ends of bones, also called articular cartilage, which protects them. Regular exercise can increase its thickness.

Synovial fluid
– movement of joint stimulates the secretion of synovial fluid. With regular exercise this becomes les viscous (more fluid) and the range of movement at the joint increases as connective tissue around the joint improves its flexibility.

Energy systems
Aerobic & anaerobic enzymes
– Increases in size and number of
mitochondria are accompanied by increases in the enzymes that work inside to
increase the production of aerobic energy. These changes explain increased
performances in aerobic exercise. The same can be said of enzymes that help
produce energy within the Lactic acid system when glucose is being broken down.

- Fat is a main source of energy during low intensity exercise. When glycogen stores deplete during long periods of exercise the use of fat as a fuel increases. Trained athletes can use a greater amount of fat as a fuel compared to non-athletes which can help in preserving glycogen stores for a longer period.

Glycogen stores
– These increase within the muscles cell and can then lead to increased duration / speed of performance.

Cardiovascular system
Hypertrophy – the muscle increases in size and bulk. Hypertrophy is a result of an increase in the volume of contractile proteins (Actin & Myosin) within the muscle cell so they can contract with
greater force. The number of muscle fibres stays the same. In general males have a greater potential for increases in muscle bulk due to higher levels of the hormone testosterone.

Increases in tendon strength - tendons are tough bands of fibrous connective tissue designed to withstand tension forces along their length. Like muscles, tendons adapt to the mechanical loading of regular exercise. A general adaptation is increased strength but different types of training will exert differing effects on muscle – tendon complexes. Ligaments and tendons will increase in flexibility and strength with exercise. Articular cartilage also becomes thicker.

Muscle stores & Mitochondria - Muscles increase their oxidative capacity (their ability to use oxygen to produce energy) with regular training. This is achieved by an increase in the number of mitochondria (an
organelle where aerobic energy is produced) within the muscle cells which will increase the supply of ATP and an increase in the quantity of enzymes involved in the production of ATP. The ability of the muscle to store myoglobin is
increased (myoglobin is like haemoglobin and carries oxygen).

Lactic acid Anaerobic training stimulates the muscles to become better able to tolerate lactic acid and clear it away more efficiently. With endurance training the capillary network extends allowing greater volumes of blood to supply the muscles with oxygen and nutrients. The muscles are able to use more fate as a fuel source and become more efficient at using oxygen.

Respiratory system
In general lung volumes and capacities change very little with training. Vital capacity (the amount of air that can be breathed out after maximal inspiration) increases slightly. Tidal volume (the amount breathed out each breath) is unchanged at rest but shows some increases at maximal exercise.

After training breathing rate at rest may be slightly lowered as a result of increased efficiency of the lung but it can be increased at maximal exercise.

Minute volume (the amount breathed out in one minute) can increase dramatically during maximal work from 120 Lt/min up to about 150 Lt/min following training. This is a result of increased tidal volume and breathing rate.

The muscles of respiration can increase their strength following
training (diaphragm & intercostal muscles).
UNIT 2 - The physiology of fitness
The long term effects of exercise on the body systems (MSU)

Cardiac Hypertrophy
- The heart increases in size and volume. The wall of the left ventricle gets thicker which can increase the force of contraction.

Stroke volume
- at rest stoke volume has been shown to be
significantly higher after an aerobic training programme. The heart can therefore pump more blood per minute, increasing cardiac output during maximal levels of exercise. Blood flow increases as a consequence of an increase in size and number of blood vessels. This allows for a more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients.

Cardiac output
– During exercise cardiac output increases as a result of the increase in heart rate and stroke volume. Stroke
volume doses not increase significantly beyond lower intensity work rates so the increase in cardiac output at higher level is achieved through increases in heart rate. As stroke volume
increases as result of training this will give a subsequent increase in the cardiac output.

Resting heart rate
– this decreases after aerobic endurance
training as a result of the increased resting stroke volume the heart does not have to beat as fast at rest.

- long term exercise can lead to the development of the capillary network to a part of the body. Aerobic exercise can increase the number of capillaries. As a result of this blood flow to the muscle will increase which will give a more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients.

Increase in blood volume
– blood volume represents the amount of blood circulating in the body and varies from person to person and can increase as a result of training. Capillarisation is the cause of the increase.

Resting blood pressure
– Exercise increases blood pressure during the activity but it returns to normal afterwards. The quicker it does this the more aerobically fit you are likely to be. Research suggests that regular exercise can decrease resting blood pressure however this is only in hypertensive people.

Decreased recovery time
- heart rate recovery is a measure of how much your rate falls during the first minute after exercise. The fitter you are the quicker the heart rate will return to normal.
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