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This prezi highlights the basics of EQ's including location, waves, detection, Richter, and triangulation.

Chad Sindaco

on 13 January 2016

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Transcript of Earthquakes

a movement or trembling of the ground that is caused by a sudden release of energy when rocks along a fault move (Holt)
Elastic Rebound
focus - point inside Earth from where the earthquake originates
Earthquake Waves
seismic waves of energy travel through Earth as energy is released from the focus
3 types of waves
primary waves
fastest, arrive first
back and forth, compressional
P waves
S waves
secondary waves
travel slower, arrive second
travel side to side
Surface waves
travel slowest
can be side to side or up and down
recording earthquakes
EQ waves are recorded using a seismograph
the tracing made by a seismograph is called a seismogram and will show the arrival time and size of each of the EQ waves
the size (amplitude) of the "zig zags" are proportional to the amount of energy released and distance from the epicenter
just like the ripples in water that travel outward from a disturbance
seismic wave interactive
As EQ waves travel out, the amount of time between them changes
by comparing the three sesimograms here you can determine which station was closest to the quake
earthquake magnitude
the Richter Scale assigns a number to an earthquake based on the amount of energy released by the quake

the number (from 0 to 10) is determined by examining the amplitude of the waves on a recording and the recording's distance from the epicenter
use the difference between the arrival of the P and S waves along with the time travel graph to determine the distance from the epicenter

measure the amplitude on the seismogram

plot the data on the nomogram and connect with a line

the magnitude is determined by where the line crosses the scale
190 mm
36 seconds
350 km
a more accurate estimate can be determined by plotting the data from 3 separate stations and determining the intersection of all 3 lines on the magnitude scale in the middle
locating the epicenter
epicenter - point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
Locating the epicenter
determine the difference in time between the arrival of p and s waves on a seismogram
use time travel graph to determine distance from epicenter for that sesismogram
draw a circle around the station having a radius equal to the distance
repeat for two additional stations to triangulate
36 seconds
350 km
Elastic Rebound Theory
epicenter - point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
during the rebound, energy is released and travels out in all directions from the focus
occurs when the stress built up from friction in the crust becomes too great, causing a release of energy as the deformed crust tries to snap back to its original shape
s-p interval
49 sec
285 mm
Full transcript