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Transcript of Forensics Timeline
Edmond Locard: was known as a for being a pioneer in Forensics Science and Criminology
1907- Locard worked with Forensics Science in his job by attempting to identify cause and location of death by examining the stains and damage of soldiers and prisoners' uniforms
1929- Edmond and others found the International Academy of Criminalistics in Sweden
Edmond was mostly known for his formulation on "Locard's Principle." Locard's Principle was a method that had related to the transfer of trace evidence between objects. It stated "every contact leaves a trace."
By: Leah Finelli, Stochia McDaniel, Leeana Koster, and Sophie Slamp
Richard Hunne was arrested for hearsay in England when it was ruled by Henry VIII. He was later found dead in his cell in the year 1514. At first, his death was ruled a suicide, but blood splatter evidence was used to prove it was murder. This was the first time this had ever been done.
Mathieu Orfila was a Spanish born scientist, but he mostly worked in France. He is considered "the Father of Forensic Toxicology." This is because in 1814 he published a book about detecting different poisons.
Francis Galton published "Finger Prints" in 1892. He was the first person to actually prove how unique every person's finger prints are. He was a British scientist.
Colin Pitchfork was responsible for the raped and strangulation two 15 year old girls. His was the first case where scientists extracted DNA from old crime stains. They did this in 1985. It was also the first case where a previous suspect was exonerated from the murder charges because of DNA profiling. He was arrested in 1987, 5 years after the first murder.
Tommy Lee Andrews is a serial rapist. He was the first defendant to be convicted using DNA evidence. This occurred in 1988. He was convicted for two violent rapes, but suspected in at least 16 cases.
Tommy Lee Andrews
Daubert vs. Merrell Dow was a case in 1993 in which Daubert and a few others (all with limb reduction birth defects) were accusing Merrell Dow Pharmaceutics of being responsible for their birth defects. They claimed that their mothers had ingested drugs made by the company while pregnant. The court decided there wasn't enough evidence because the drugs weren't widely accepted as harmful. but this lead to the Daubert Standard in regards to expert scientific testimony.
Dauber Vs. Merrell Dow
NDIS stands for the National DNA Index System. This is a huge database that holds DNA profiles from local, state, and federal labs across the United States and Puerto Rico. It contains DNA profiles all the way from convicted criminals to unidentified human remains. It was originally set up in October 1998.
Jack the Ripper
Jack the Ripper (also known as Leather Apron) was a serial killer in London who was mostly active in 1888. His name can from a letter that was supposedly (but doubtfully) written by him and published in several newspapers. He was known for killing prostitutes by slitting their throats and then gutting them. His technique led people to believe he may have been a surgeon, but he was never actually caught. He did inspire many works of fiction.
Partricia Cornwell is the author of the Skarpetta crime series. The books have sold over a million copies and contain a lot of forensic science details. The first book of the series was published in 1990.
Edmond Locard was a French known for being a pioneer in Forensics Science. He was related in Forensics Science by in his job attempting to identify cause and location of death by examining stains of soldiers and prisoners uniforms.
police officer in Berkeley, California who's famous for the invention of the modern polygraph
Hsi Duan Yu
This text came from China, and means the washing away of wrongs. Known as the first published book on forensics, it includes tips on strangulation cases from damaged neck cartilage. Showed the difference between drowning and strangulation.
failed attempt at testing samples for arsenic during important case lead him to inventing the Marsh test which can detect even the smallest amounts of arsenic.
First famous case was called malle a gouffe. He was a principal founder in medical jurisprudence, and criminal anthropology, and was a specialist in the toxicology field. bloodstain pattern analysis who also studied weapons and identifying relationships between weapon and markings.
Simpson's textbook Forensic Medicine was published, also along with others he formed the association of forensic medicine in Great Britain.
American serial killer, rapist, kidnapper, and necrophile. Admitted to 30 known homicides in 7 states between 1974 and 1978
Famous forensic scientist who worked on famous cases such as post 9-11 forensic investigations and the DC sniper shootings. Worked on the early stages of the Caylee Anthony investigation in 2008.
He was a German Scientist. Walter found blood that would turn Luminol the same color. Luminol was a versatile chemical that shows chemiluminescence, with a striking blue glow, when mixed with an appropriate oxidizing agent.
Forensics: Time Line
His Duan Yu- 1248 China. The washing away of wrongs. known as the first published book on forensics tips on strangulation cases from damaged neck cartilage. Showed the difference between drowning and strangulation.
Alexandre Lacassagne- First famous case was in 1889, and it was called malle a gouffe. He was a principal founder in medical jurisprudence and criminal anthropology, and was a specialist in the toxicology field. bloodstain pattern analysis who also studied weapons and identifying relationships between weapon and markings.
James Marsh- 1832 failed attempt at testing samples for arsenic which lead to him inventing the Marsh test which can detect even the smallest amounts of arsenic.
Ted Bundy- American serial killer, rapist, kidnapper, and necrophile. Admitted to 30 known homicides in 7 states between 1974 and 1978
Keith Simpson- 1947 along with others he formed the association of forensic medicine.
John Augustus Larson- police officer in Berkeley, California who's famous for the invention of the modern polygraph in 1921
Henry Lee- Famous forensic scientist who worked on famous cases such as post 9-11 forensic investigations and the DC sniper shootings. Worked on the early stages of the Caylee Anthony investigation in 2008.
Alec Jeffreys- 1984 Found that DNA fingerprinting would dentify genetic codes to specific individuals. Also DNA profiling.
The Surete inspired the Scotland Yard. It
also was inspiration for the FBI and other
departments of criminal investigation
throughout the world. This relates to
Forensics because the word Surete means
safety and this relates by keeping areas
more secure and safe.
Karl had identified there are three different types of blood. He had identified these three types of blood groups as A, B and O which he labeled as C. Karl related to Forensics Science
by helping identify the blood type we humans
Frye v. United States
The Frye v. United States was a test.
this test determined the admissibility
of scientific evidence. The Court in
Frye held that expert testimony has to
be based on scientific methods that are established and accepted.
Paul was a German bacteriologist and hygienist. He had discovered that if he injected protein from a chicken egg into a rabbit, and then mixed serum from the rabbit with egg white, the egg proteins separated from the liquid to form a cloudy substance known as precipitin. This idea had formed a antibody. His new technique was the first to be used in the case of two murdered and dismembered children in the town of Göhren on the Baltic island of Rügen.
Victor was a French Professor in Forensic Medicine. He worked with Marcelle Lambert in the year of 1910. Working together they had published the first comprehensive hair study "Le poil de l'homme et des animaux" also known as "The hair of man and animals". This includes numerous microscopic studies of hairs from most animals. As a result, during one of the first legal cases ever involving hairs, French citizen Rosella Rousseau was prompted to confess to murder in 1910.
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek ( 1632-1723) was a dutch scientist who is considered the Father of Microbiology. He was a careful observer whose hobby was making lenses and examining microscopic organisms. He was the first to observe bacteria and protozoa in 1674 and in 1684 he gave the first accurate description of red blood cells. He communicated his discoveries via letters to the Royal Society of England, which are currently for public use. His skills of observation and work with microscopes has greatly impacted forensics.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (May 22, 1859 - July 7, 1930) was originally a medical student, and was the first to make forensics a popular topic for public enjoyment. His most well known characters are Sherlock Holmes and John Watson, who were first introduced in his novel A Study In Scarlet, published in 1888. His collection of writings encourages the use of observation and deductive reasoning.
Georg Popp (October 1904) was the first to use geological information in order to solve a crime. As a German forensic scientist, he was asked to assist in helping solve the murder of Eva Disch. He caught the suspect by analyzing and comparing the dirt particles on Eva’s handkerchief, the suspects pants, and the dirt path between the murder site and the suspects home.
Leone Lattes (1887-1954) was an Italian scientist who, in 1915, created a method which categorized dried blood stains into A, B, AB, or O. Some forensic scientists still use his methods to identify blood stains at crime scenes.
Mikhail Gerasimov (1907-1970) was a Soviet scientist and archaeologist who pioneered facial reconstruction and was a leader in forensics. Of his 200 reconstructions, he also recreated Ivan the Terrible, Yaroslav the Wise, and many more. In 1941, he was sent by Stalin, for reasons unknown, to open the tomb of Tamerlane. On the inside of the tomb, there was a warning that said whoever opened the tomb would unleash an invader worse than Tamerlane. Soon after, Hitler invaded their country, so Gerasimov is often blamed for that.
Federal Rules of Evidence
Federal Rules of Evidence (1975) were created and carefully examined in order to secure fairness in the administration of evidence in federal courts so that the jury may reach a just verdict and to encourage the growth of the law of evidence. The United States of America can create their own rules of evidence, although most have based theirs on the FRE. In a civil case there has to be a preponderance of evidence, where as in a criminal case the evidence has to be proven beyond a reasonable doubt. Some rules of evidence include Prior Inconsistent Statement, Privileges, and Impeachment by Conviction.
AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System) launched on July 28, 1999, the AFIS is home to more than 70 million criminal histories and fingerprints. Included in the data used to help solve and prevent crime and catch terrorists are things like mug shots, pictures of scars and tattoos, height, weight, hair color, eye color, and aliases. The average response time for receiving data after submitting a criminal fingerprint suggestion is 27 minutes.
IBIS (Integrated Ballistics Identification System) was first used in 2001, the IBIS is used to capture digital images of the markings made on bullets from a crime scene and later compare those images with against others entries in the National Integrated Ballistic Information Net to see any similarities or differences between cases to see if they are connected.
DNA fingerprinting- Identify genetic codes to specific individuals.
DNA profiling- DNA testing to identify a single person