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Transcript of Language Project
Cause and Effect -> LOSS Revitalization English language has spread through Alaskan villages.
Migration of Eyak people and Tlingit people which made the spread of Tlingit language through Eyak villages. http://www.saskschools.ca/~avonlea2/grass3/grade56/map.gif http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/maps/255.gif Siir - Language connects the cultural and social history.
- “The way you talk identifies the group you belong to.”—David Lightfoot—professor of linguistics at the Georgetown University.
- Harrison thins that when a language vanishes, a unique way of seeing the world dies with it—ideas. - “The languages that are disappearing are most unusual in their structures compared to the majority languages that are displacing them.”—Doug Whalenpresident of the Connecticut-based Endangered Language Fund.
- Languages that disappear have complex structures. It is certain that these will be the ones disappearing,
- Knowledge encoded in a native language and used in a particular context or setting is lost when the speakers switch to another, more dominant language.
- Even if the structure of a language remains, the way it is used changescarries the speaking style and attitudes of a more dominant language.
- In every language, there is a complex knowledge system. This is true for the languages of people that live close to land and depend on it.
- "Language is a part of who you are, it's your breath that you breath... Without your language, you might as well be dead." (pbs.org) Siir (Siir) Siir Number of Speakers - K. David Harrisonspecialist in Tuvan and other Siberian languageslooking for native speakers of Middle Chulym.
- “The speakers are located in Russia, in central Siberia, north of the Altay Mountains, in the basin of the Chulym River, a tributary of the Ob River. “
- 35 native speakers in total in 6 isolated villages in southwestern Siberia. There are 426 people in the community. The rest speaks Russian only.
- st and 4th were deaf. 2nd was incoherent.
- 3rdGabov is helping Harrison. He is the youngest speaker of Middle Chulym (52 years old)
- PS: Chulym is realted to Turkish. “…belongs to the Turkish-Tatar languages, East-Hun branch, Uighur-Oguz group, subgroup of Khakass.” (eki.ee)
- If nothing is done to revive the language and cultivate it within the younger generation, the language and the culture with it will vanish in 30-40 years.
- Most of it is lost in transition from spoken word to written wordsuch as the history, and oral traditions/
- Some see it as a natural evolution instead of a sociopolitical pressure.
- Some think that it is an individual choice and the linguists cannot do anything about it.
- Russian is taking over! Why is it declining? Siir - Russian is taking over the Chulym speakers.
- Soviet Unionit began affecting Chulym in the 1940s when Stalin ordered Chulym and other Siberian children to go to boarding schools and he prohibited the use of any non-Russian language.
*Chulym was seen as a gutter language.
*It was spoken at homes and in private. Ashamed and afraid to speak Chulym in publicmany hid their knowledge o their native tongue.
- 1970splight of language worsened cuz of the Soviet “village consolidation program”relocated Chulym into larger, Russian-speaking settlement.
- Middle Chulym relied on fishing and their language reflected this. When the speakers of this language switched to Russian, they lost this information.
- For example, Gabov grew up under pressure from the Soviet Union in order to use Russian instead of Chulym. So he was forced to discard his mother-tongue. Siir Eyak became an extinct language because it is no longer used in communication but there are young students that are studying the Eyak language. Which languages are replacing it and why? - “It is hard to imagine what it would take exactly to get them interested enough to learn it.”—Harrison.
- The chances of its death are very high because it is a small community—134 people (eki.ee).
- TRYING TO BRING IT BACK!--> Gabov began writing Chulym with the Russian alphabet in the 1980s. He wrote a journal. From this knowledge, Gabov and Harrison began working on a storybook for children with pictures. The storybook was published within a year. The story was one of the traditional Chulym tales—about the Shamans.
*But even with this attempt, linguistics think that it is “too late to preserve the Chulym language as a medium for daily communication.” It is just not too late to record it. Revitalization Siir - Death of a language is a step towards the death of culture
- Every language has clues to how people lived.
- “If a language disappears then the cultural evidence disappears also, because it was only embedded in the language.”—David Lightfoot.
- “A working language conveys so much about a culture—ethics, history, love, family dynamics—in short: the whole life of a people.”—Diane Ackermanvisiting professor at Cornell University.
- Chulym culture
*Ancestral stories are already fading away because they were verbally shared. With the loss of the language, the meaning and history of the Middle Chulym is lost.
*Bearmystical animal. Respect it and fear it. Powerful symbol. Rituals are based on animastic belief system.
- Shamanic rituals. Harrison found out that only 2 people out of 35 saw this in their life time. Shamans disappeared because native Siberians and Russians converted to orthodox Christianity.
Siir It takes extensive effort, money and community support. Siir - Because of colonialism and globalization, smaller languages are replaced by major ones. (pbs.org)
- “Language may be banished from the tongue, but not necessarily from the mind.” Siir - Over half of the languages are endangered3500 are at risk of extinction.
- A language is considered to be dead, when the last speaker of it dies.
- Most of the languages have no writing system at all.
Epley, Beth, and Sara Wenner. "Blackfoot ." mnsu.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2011.
<http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/blackfoot.html>. "Blackfeet Nation." blackfeetnation.com. N.p., 2011. Web. 10 Feb. 2011.
<http://www.blackfeetnation.com/>. "A Teacher's Guide to Endangered Languages." pbs.org. N.p., 2009. Web. 10 Feb. 2011.
<http://www.pbs.org/thelinguists/For-Educators/>. "THE CHULYM TATARS ." eki.ee. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2011.
<http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/chulym_tatars.shtml>. "Chulym language ." worldlingo.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2011.
<http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Chulym_language>. Lost in Translation. (Chulym Language) (Sara) - Eyak as a language is spoken by Eyak people who used to live in south-central Alaska, USA.
- There are 4 villages where Eyak people lived. In Anchorage the last speaker of the Eyak language passed away (2008).
- Eyak language is well-documented. It has a dictionary, grammar book, a body of literature, videos and recordings.
- The argument is made about the Eyak culture dying because there are no native speakers of Eyak language. (Sara) The Last Speaker of Eyak Language Died.
Native Alaskan Tongue Died too? Why is it dying? :( (Sara) Revitalization http://www.cordovaalaska.com/maps/map_southalaska.gif http://www.wordtravels.com/images/map/Israel_map.jpg Why is it dying? (Sara) Hebrew is the language of the Jews. The fact that six million Jews were murdered in Europe during the World War II has affected the existence of Hebrew.
All the Hebrew dictionaries, pieces of literature, documents, and grammar books were destroyed except the Old Testament which is one of two parts of the Bible. It was written in ancient Hebrew language.
World War 2 has made the Hebrew language die. I wasn’t used in written or spoken way for 2000 years. Eyak became an extinct language because it is no longer used in communication but there are young students that are studying the Eyak language. What did people do about
Hebrew as dying language? (Sara) In 1900 in Palestine people started using Hebrew in daily conversations.
Palestinians believed Hebrew can spread if the children start using it which makes the language depend on the young generations.
In 1900 some schools started using Hebrew which made some children native Hebrew speakers.
The new Hebrew was made up of many words from other languages and new created words because there wasn’t written documents that people could follow to learn Hebrew.
During this period of time (19th century), Jewish nationalism was spreading which was good for the health of Hebrew.
Today Hebrew is the official language of Israel.
Many Jews around the world know Hebrew.
It is still used in the Christian and Jewish ceremonies. Why did it “die” in the first place? (Theresa) - Because people stopped teaching the language to the younger generation
- At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, when kids were talking the Black Foot Language in school, they were laughed at and made fun of. Parents and Grandparents did not want their kids to feel the way they had felt and that is why they stopped passing the language on. - The ‘RealSpeak School was formed in Montana where the young generation of the Blackfoot tribe get taught in their ancestral tongue
- “The language allows kids to unravel the mysteries of their heritage.” (director of the school)
- At the beginning, thery just had weekly languaga courses and the students used to forget what they had learned rapidly
- Then the school was transformed into a school where only the Blackfoot language was spoken and after some time, the students started talking in Blackfoot even outside of school.
- “Some people think out language is dead, but it’s not,” say DesRosier, a lanky teenager with a ready grin and dark, narrow braids that reach the middle of his back. “We still have our language and we’re bringing it back.” What are people doing against the complete disappearance of the language?
(Theresa) Cultural Details from the past:
- Womens’s and Men’s roles in the past: Blackfoot women were in charge of the home. Besides cooking and cleaning, a Blackfoot woman built her family’s house and dragged the heavy posts with her whenever the tribe moved. The houses belonged to them. The Blackfoot men were hunters and sometimes they went to war to defend their families. Both genders took part in storytelling, artwork, music, and traditional medicine.
- Their homes: The Blackfoot lived in buffalo-hide houses called tipis (or teepees). Since the Blackfeet moved frequently to follow the buffalo herds, a tipi was carefully designed to set up and break down quickly, like a modern tent. An entire Blackfoot village could be packed up and ready to move within an hour. Today, Native Americans only put up a tepee for fun or to connect with their heritage, not as shelter. Most Blackfoot people live in modern houses and apartment buildings.
- Their clothing: Blackfoot women wore long deerskin dresses. Men wore buckskin tunics and breechcloths with leggings. Blackfoot dresses and war shirts were fringed and often decorated with porcupine quills, beads, and elk teeth. Both Blackfeet women and men wore moccasins on their feet and buffalo-hide robes in cold weather. Later, Blackfoot people adopted some European costume such as calico dresses and felt hats. Blackfeet chiefs wore tall feather headdresses, different from the long warbonnets of the Sioux. Men wore their hair in three braids with a topknot or pompadour, and women wore their hair loose or in two thicker braids. Blackfeet people painted their faces for special occasions. They used different patterns for war paint, religious ceremonies, and festive decoration. Blackfoot Tribe http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Localizaci%C3%B3n_de_la_CA_de_Euskadi_%28NUTS_ES1%29.png Loss/gaining of point of view Basque Language (Pavle) Just as with the side-by –side resurgence of the Irish language and Irish nationalism, the Basque language within the autonomous Basque Country in Spain is used as a symbol and tool to fuel the people’s nationalism in their fight for independence. This could lead to the birth of a nation with pre-historic origin, dating before the spread of indo-European languages. Effect of other languages (Pavle) Basque, throughout the ages, has been affected by many languages such as Spanish, French and other Frankish and even Arabic languages through different phases of history. It is a miracle that the Basque culture and national-self determination have survived the struggles history has put on it: (Pavle) Number of Speakers
665 800 (2006) (Pavle) Over the centuries Romance languages: Spanish and French, have gained superiority in the region. This was due to the authoritarian policies of their speakers and being a majority in general. The resurgence of Basque is recent history is a result of the promotion of national self determination and Basque and worldwide nationalism in general. Why it’s declining/dyeing (Pavle) French and Spanish threaten Basque as people limited to being only fluent in Basque are also limited in career choices, education option, etc. As Basque Country is a fully autonomous region In Spain, their independence would greatly loosen the grasp Spanish and French have upon the dwindling Basque speakers as career and education would options no longer be confined to the official nation language Spanish. The nationalism behind gaining independence along with having a single official language in Basque country (Basque ) would greatly help in the newer generations embracing Basque as a mother tongue. Which languages are replacing it/why (Pavle) Kawesqar http://static.latercera.com/200909/508134_400.jpg http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter54/text-Fuego/Kawesqar/Kawesqar-Map.jpg - Languages that have survived in isolation, struggle now -> often die out when a more widely spoken language is being spoken on their territory
- Kawesqar, a language spoken in an isolated area of southern Chile (50) -> Spanish
- Wellington Island in the Patagonia region of southern Chile –> the last 6 speakers of Kawesqar
- Chile started a modest program to save Kawesqar and Yaghan, the last two native languages of Southern Chile -> But how does one salvage an ailing language when more dominant languages such as Spanish are around you?-> is it possible to be saved -> should it be?
- To get when the Kawesqar people are -> three-day chug by boat through the cold uninhabited island channels of Patagonia -> one a week tourists come (Rakel) - The Kawesqar are famous for their adaption to cold, rainy world of channels and islands -> Tierra del Fuego
- In two generations, a healthy language - even one with hundreds of thousands of speakers - can collapse entirely, sometimes without noticing (Kawesqar - 50 speakers)
- Without revitalization of youth, a language can go from being alive to endangered -> moribund -> dead
- It's cool speaking the dominant language
- Old fashioned -> baskets (Rakel) The changes in values are mostly political, with the promotion of national self-determination amongst minorities around the world. (Pavle) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Linguistic_map_Southwestern_Europe.gif.