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Hot, Cold and Frozen Desserts

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Michael Plumb

on 8 February 2016

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Transcript of Hot, Cold and Frozen Desserts

Hot, Cold and Frozen desserts
Swiss Meringue
This meringue is produced by whisking egg white and a
small percentage of icing sugar together over a bain-marie (to 60c) then then castor sugar is incorporated and continually whisked until cooled alternatively all the sugar and egg white can be warmed in a bain marie then whisked until cool and peaked.
This creates a heavy marshmallow type meringue
Italian Meringue
This meringue is produced using peaked egg whites then sugar brought to soft ball stage (121c) added in a steady stream to the meringue whilst whisking
Remember not to over whip or the meringue will end up with a course grainy finish
French Meringue

This is produced by whisking egg whites with an acid (cream of tartar), then slowly adding sugar whilst whisking until peaked and glossy, you can fold through icing sugar for a dryer meringue at the end of the process.
NB-Don't over whip
or it will become heavy and wet, with sugar being released during cooking.

When egg whites are beaten, some of the hydrogen bonds in the proteins break, causing the proteins to unfold (denature).
This change in structure leads to the stiff consistency required for meringues.
The addition of cream of tartar is required to additionally denature the proteins to create the firm peaks; otherwise the whites will not be firm.
Plastic, wet or greasy bowls will likely result in the meringue mix being prevented from becoming peaked.
Wiping the bowl with a wedge of lemon to remove any traces of grease can often help the process

When beating egg whites,
they are classified in three stages according to the peaks they form when the beater is lifted:
Soft peaks
Firm peaks
Stiff peaks

Egg whites and sugar are both
hygroscopic (water-attracting) ingredients.
As a result, meringue becomes soggy when refrigerated or stored in a high-humidity environment.
This also explains the problem called ‘weeping’ or ‘sweating’, in which beads of moisture form on all surfaces of the meringue.
Sweating is a particular problem for meringues in which the sugar is inadequately dissolved in the egg whites, and for high-moisture pie fillings such as lemon meringue pie.

The process of pasteurisation is essential to the production of ice cream.
In 1864 Louis Pasteur discovered that fermentation was caused by micro-organisms and realised that many infectious diseases derived from specific microbes.
Pasteur found out that heating milk to 65°C, keeping at this temperature it for 30 minutes, and then cooling it to 4°C destroyed all pathogenic microbes while leaving the main nutritional and structural characteristics of the milk unchanged.
All ingredients in the ice-cream mix must be subjected to heat treatment for the correct time periods and then cooled down quickly. The treated ingredients must be kept covered to prevent any new contamination.

Ice cream is made by freezing a liquid mixture containing carefully balanced ingredients after it has been subjected to heat treatment.
The conditions of the heat treatment are carefully governed by legal standards.
Scrupulous cleanliness must be observed in every stage of ice-cream making.
The materials used can easily become contaminated and give rise to food poisoning bacteria.
A special area should be reserved for the production of ice cream, appropriately equipped and kept solely for this purpose.
The equipment should be used solely for the making of ice cream.
An abundant supply of hot and cold water for washing purposes is also essential
Ice Cream

The base mix is homogenised, which forms a fat emulsion by breaking down or reducing the size of the fat globules found in milk or cream.
Homogenisation provides the following functions in ice-cream production:
Reduces size of fat globules to create a better texture
Increases surface area of fats to increase aeration
Makes a smoother ice cream
Gives a greater apparent richness and palatability
Gives better air stability
Increases resistance to melting

Homogenisation of the mix should take place at the pasteurising temperature.

Following the preparation of the base mix, it then enters the freezing process which freezes a fraction of the water and whips air into the frozen mix at the same time.
Ice cream contains a considerable quantity of air. This gives the product its characteristic lightness. Without air, ice cream would be similar to a frozen ice cube. The air content is known as overrun.

Freezing and hardening
The use of liquid nitrogen in the primary freezing of ice cream has only recently started to see commercial viability.
The preparation results in a column of white, condensed water vapour cloud.
The ice cream, which is dangerous to eat while still ‘steaming’, is allowed to rest until the liquid nitrogen is completely vaporised.
Due to the rapid freezing, the crystal grains are smaller, giving the ice cream a creamier texture, and allowing the chef to obtain the same texture by using less milk-fat

Freezing and liquid nitrogen
Homogenisation for icecreams

Types of Icecreams
: Made from fruit purée or pulp and stock syrup
Water ice
: Made from fruit juice and stock syrup
: A sorbet mixture with Italian meringue
: Crystallised flavoured syrup or fruit purée
Pâte à bombe
: A special preparation of egg yolks and sugar syrup used for frozen and mousse based desserts
Pâte à biscuit glacées
: As a pâte à bombe mixture but in a biscuit mould, sometimes lightened with meringue and demoulded
Soufflé glacé
: Iced soufflé
Ice cream
: Contains egg, sugar, cream and usually milk with flavouring
Omelette soufflé
: Ice cream encased in a meringue preparation on a base of Génoise and fruit
: Granite with crème Chantilly folded in before service
: Italian ice cream with a slightly softer texture
Sorbet is a frozen dessert made from sweetened water flavoured with fruit (typically juice or purée), wine, and/or liqueur.
Whereas ice cream is based on dairy products with air whipped in, sorbet has neither, which makes for a dense and extremely flavourful product.
Sorbet is served as a non-fat or low-fat alternative to ice cream.
 It is essential that the highest quality ingredients are used to make sorbets and that any fruit used is perfectly ripe.
As with ice cream, the base sorbet mix should be aged for between 4 and 24 hours in a refrigerator and then the stabiliser added just before freezing, and always according to the manufacturer’s recommendations
Definition of Frozen
Churned frozen dessert
The mixture is constantly agitated during freezing,
Resulting in a smoother texture.
e.g. Ice cream, sorbet, frozen yogurt

Still-frozen dessert
After prepared and assembled, they are left in freezer until solid state
Whipped egg whites or cream are often incorporated to aerate the base
e.g. Granita, frozen mousse,
parfait, etc.

To define what a churned or still frozen dessert is

Recall different forms of frozen desserts

Identify and Understand ingredients and their functions
Prior Learning:
List as many different types of Iced/Frozen Desserts in one minute
The US hosts lots of icecream festivals from New Jersey to Atlanta.

Kedainiai in Lithuania more known for its cucumbers, also holds a popular ice cream festival every August.

Which countries do you think
are in the top ten for ice cream
consumption?, using the giant maps provided nominate one team member to write down on the countries numbering them 1-10 (no.1 being the top)
Cross word
Group Activity
Taste test

based desserts as possible
in two minutes
Name as many meringue
Baked Alaska
Meringue Nests
Queen of puddings
Lemon meringue Pie
Eton Mess
Classic french Sauces and fillings:

Crème Diplomat

a filling made from a base of crème Patissier set with a little
gelatine and lightened with whipped cream

Creme Anglaise
-- a sauce made from Milk, vanilla, egg yolks and sugar, served cold or warm

Crème Mousseline

a filling made from a base of crème Patissier and enriched
with half the quantity of unsalted butter

– a foamed sauce used for desserts. This is made by aerating eggs,
sugar and alcohol over a bain-marie to cook the eggs whilst introducing air to
create a foamy texture. Used warm or chilled

Pate à bombe
– a preparation of egg yolks and sugar cooked to 121°c and
aerated similar to that of Italian meringue – this is used as a base for mousses
and fillings

Bavoris, Mousses and sylabubs
Bavarois- French for Bavarian cream-a base of sauce Anglaise with the addition of gelatin, whipped cream
Syllabub-Cream with the addition of a spirit, wine or an acid (lemon) then sweetened

Mousses- Cream with flavorings then gelatin added to set

Panna cotta-Set flavored
Gelatinisation is the process that starch molecules undergo to thicken a liquid
The amount of gelatine used – if too little gelatine is added, insufficient gelling will occur.
The amount of sugar added – mixtures that contain a lot of sugar will take longer to gel, or may not even gel at all.
The amount of acid present – acid can weaken the structure of gelatine.
Enzymes in fresh fruits – the protease enzyme found in some fresh fruits, such as pineapple, kiwi fruit, melon, papaya and ginger, completely prevents gelatine from setting.
This enzyme is inactivated or destroyed at 85°C, so canned or cooked fruit will not be affected.
The addition of salt – salt reduces the strength of gelatine.

Factors that effect gelatinisation
Floating Islands
Quality points to look for when producing a hot Soufflé.

• The Soufflé should be hot throughout the dessert for correct serving temperature
• The consistency of the soufflé should be just cooked with a soft gooey texture
• The soufflé should have risen and maintained its height for service to the customer
• The flavour and the colour of the finished soufflé should represent the
predominant ingredient used

Hot desserts

Clafoutis, strudel, soufflés, extensions of puddings (cabinet, bread and butter, plum pudding, date pudding),
rice puddingss, Charlottes, crêpes (eg Normandes, Parisienne, soufflé), hot fruit compôtes, modern trends (eg fondants, crumbles, warm almond cake), beignets (eg
fruit, cheese), tarts (eg chocolate, lemon bakewell).
Egg based Desserts

In your teams research 6 x egg based desserts

Creme Brulee
Creme Caramel
Egg Custard
Bread and butter pud
Cabinet Pudding

Other dessert types to explore:
Batter-based desserts: these are usually fried, e.g. pancakes, choux, clafoutis,and fritters.

Milk puddings: can be served hot or cold. They may have fruit
added. Examples include semolina, riz imperatrice (cold), semolina, and rice pudding.

Sponge-based desserts: these include steamed sponges and
bakewell tart.

Fruit-based desserts (hot and cold): these include fruit flans, Eve’s pudding, Pies,
fruit crumbles and summer puddings, fruit salads.
Cooking methods
Steaming; puddings are steamed in bowls rather than in muslin bags which were the norm in the mid twentieth century. Steaming is a gentle method of cookery that lends it self to suet and steamed puddings as the harder fats melt better over a longer period of team, steaming also does not give any colour to the product, however modern ovens have the facility to brown when using combination ovens if the need arises.
Examples of puddings using steaming as a method include:
Sticky toffee puddingSpotted Dick
fruit puddings, xmas pud etc

Using deep or shallow frying methods provides hot desserts with varied textures and golden colour's, safety is a priority with close attention to temperature monitoring.
Desserts can include:
Jalebi (Indian dessert)
Fruits (pineapple, banana etc
associated with some pie fillings prior to baking, berry compotes, coulis
Traditionally fruit puddings were boiled in muslin

Baking/ Roasting
Roasting using dry heat with a fat.
Baking using dry heat:
Pies, tarts, breads, danish pastries, choux items, biscuits, cakes, meringues, crumbles, charlotte, souffle's, strudles, scones etc

Some examples:
Discuss what the advantage
is of using Individually prepared
and presented desserts
Some tips:

To increase fruit flavour's try using macerated fruits with a suitable liqueur
To reduce fat use whipping cream instead of double or dilute your cream with fromage frais
If your sauce anglaise splits, whisk or liquidise it
Full transcript