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Civil War

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Douglas Brown

on 22 November 2016

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Transcript of Civil War

Civil War
1861-1865
1st Bull Run (1:12:32)
Lincoln's Woes in the East, 1861-62
Bull Run, Peninsula, Bull Run, Antietam,
Lee invaded Maryland but McClellan Beat Em.

McClellan delayed his pursuit and Lee got away,
Back into Virginia to fight another day.
War in the East
1861-63
Antietam
Antietam casualties
September 17, 1862
12,500 Union
13,700 Confederate
Bloodiest single day of fighting in U.S. History

War in the West
1861-1863
Grant and Farragut on the Mississippi,
Vicksburg siege in '63, Union wins it, Yippee.
Strategies:
Union:
Capture Richmond
Blockade South at sea
Control Mississippi River
Confederacy: Defensive War
until Union tires of fighting
Union (USA) Goal: Preserve Union
Confederate Goal: Independence
Gettysburg Day 3: Picket's Charge
Gettysburg: Picket's Charge
"High-water mark of the Confederacy"

CSA: 6,000 casualties in one hour.
Gettysburg: Little Round Top
LaSalle "Sallie" Corbell
John Burns
69 years old
went to fight with Union, July 1, 1863
got modern rifle from wounded soldier
acted as a sharpshooter
wounded several times
left behind by Union
hid bullets and crawled away from rifle
aided by Confederates
hid in a basement then made his way home
lived until 1872
Gettysburg Address
The War in the West
1863-1865
After the Battle of Chattanooga in November of 1863, Lincoln makes Grant a Lieutenant General and Commander of all Union Armies
General Braxton Bragg
America the Story of Us: Civil War
A.P. Hill
Trench Warfare
Over 30 miles of trenches around Richmond and Petersburg
Siege of Petersburg, VA
June 9, 1864-March 25, 1865
William Harvey Carney
May 23, 1900 awarded Medal of Honor
July 18, 1863
272 Casualties of 600
Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith of the Trans-Mississippi Division last to surrender at Galveston, Texas
Grant's Drive to Richmond, 1864
Union Campaigns Cripple the Confederacy
p 541
Wilderness, May 5-6, 1864
101,000 Union v. 61,000 Confederate
Casualties: 15,000 to 8,000
Spotsylvania, May 8-21, 1864
104,000 Union v. 53,000 Confederate
Casualties: 17,000 to 9,000
Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864
108,000 Union v. 59,000 Confederate
Casualties: 12,000 to 1,500
An allegorical female figure hovers above them, holding a laurel or olive branch, and poppies (symbolic of death, sleep, remembrance and victory).

An allegorical female angel figure floats above the figures, with her proper left hand extended outward and her proper right hand clasping laurel. Her head is turned downward; her drapery is horizontally arranged.
Goal: stretch Confederate soldiers and supplies to their limits
July 21, 1861
30,000 Union v. 32,000 Confederate
Casualties: 2,900 Union v. 2,000 Confederate
Lincoln shot on April 14, 1865
General Lee surrenders to General Grant on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Courthouse
General Johnston surrenders to General Sherman on April 26, 1865 in North Carolina
Confederate government dissolved on May 5, 1865 in Washington, Georgia.
Jefferson Davis captured on May 10.
1 Surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia (April 9)
2 Surrender of General St. John Richardson Liddell's troops (April 9)
3 Union Capture of Columbus, Georgia (Easter Sunday, April 16)
4 Disbanding of Mosby's Raiders (April 21)
5 Surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston and his various armies (April 26)
6 Surrender of the Confederate departments of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana regiments (May 4)
7 Surrender of the Confederate District of the Gulf (May 5)
8 Andrew Johnson's May 9 declaration (May 9)
9 Capture of President Davis (May 10)
10 Surrender of the Confederate Department of Florida and South Georgia (May 10)
11 Surrender of the Northern Sub-District of Arkansas (May 11)
12 Surrender of Confederate forces of North Georgia (May 12)
13 Disbandment after the Battle at Palmito Ranch (May 13)
14 Surrender of Kirby Smith (May 26)
15 Surrender of Cherokee chief Stand Watie (June 23)
16 Surrender of CSS Shenandoah (November 6)
17 Presidential proclamation ending the war

Johnston surrenders to
Sherman in North Carolina
on April 26

Secession: The act of formally withdrawing from the United States (basically the opposite of cede or cession).
Results of the Civil War
1. The United States stops the south from seceding from the U.S.
2. The bloodiest war in U.S. history
3. Slavery is abolished with passage of the 13th Amendment
Sullivan Ballou Letter
page 600 red book, R38 blue book
George McClellan given command of the
Army of the Potomac
100,000 disciplined soldiers
General McClellan is slow to move because he thinks he is outnumbered by Confederates.
McClellan launches "Peninsular Campaign" in spring of 1862
General Johnston wounded at Seven Pines,
Robert E. Lee takes command of the Army of Northern Virginia.
Lee defeats McClellan at the Seven Days battle in July 1862,
Lincoln orders General John Pope to march on Richmond.
Generals Lee, Longstreet and Jackson defeat Pope at Second Battle of Bull Run in August 1862.
Lee launches invasion into the Union leading to the Battle of Antietam in September of 1862.
Wilbur McLean: The Civil war started in his front yard, and ended in his front parlor.
Beauregard wrote after the battle, "A comical effect of this artillery fight was the destruction of the dinner of myself and staff by a Federal shell that fell into the fire-place of my headquarters at the McLean House."[1]

In the spring of 1863 McLean moves about 120 miles south to Appomattox, Virginia.
The South had a long military tradition;
most talented officers were in the Confederate Army
(Beauregard, Jackson, Johnston, Lee, Longstreet)

Many northern generals were political appointments,
given rank, in part, for who they were, not what they had done.
Cotton diplomacy (using cotton sales to gain foreign support) had failed, and Lee was hoping a victory in the North would help gain support from nations like Britain and France (both had abolished slavery decades before).

Also hopes to convince Maryland to secede.
Seven Days Battles: Series of 5 battles where Lee defends Richmond from McClellan.

20,000 Confederate and 16,000 Union casualties

CSA General D.H. Hill: "It was not war-it was murder"
General D.H. Hill
Civil War part 2: Shiloh (32:05)
Fredericksburg, VA
December 13, 1862

Union 120,000
Confederacy 78,000

Casualties
Union 12,700
CSA 5,400

Lee wins
Chancellorsville, VA
May 2-6, 1863

Union 133,900
CSA 60,900

Casualties
Union 17,278
CSA 12,210

Lee wins;
"Stonewall" Jackson dies
of pneumonia after being shot
by his own men.
Gettysburg
July 1-3, 1863

Union: 83,300
Confederate: 75,050
1/4 CS have no shoes
regiment sizes average 300-500 men
Gettysburg Casualties
USA: 23,049
CSA: 27,253

7,000 killed outright and burried
History Lost and Found: Sickles' Leg
died: July 3, 1863
Only Gettysburg civilian killed
during the battle.
"if practicable."
20th Maine v.
15th Alabama
In all, Chamberlain served in 20 battles and numerous skirmishes,
was cited for bravery four times, had six horses shot from under him, and was wounded six times.


1863- bullet hits sword scabbard and bruised his thigh, and a piece of spent bullet or shrapnel injured his right foot.
1864- bullet enters right hip and groin and exits left hip. Expected to die, his death reported in Maine newspaper.
1865- bullet through horse's neck, hit a picture frame, entered skin in front, traveled under skin along a rib and exited out his back.
Expansion of the United States
1820 Missouri Compromise
36 degrees 30’ North latitude
1845 U.S. gains Texas
1846-1848 Mexican War
U.S. gains Mexican Cession
1848-1849 California Gold Rush
1850 California applies for statehood

Compromise of 1850
, page 478-479
What do slave states get in exchange for admitting
California into the union as a free state? (2-3 things)

Remainder of
Mexican Cession
divided into Utah and New Mexico Territories:
popular sovereignty
would be used to determine if slavery would be permitted.
New
Fugitive Slave Act
would be passed.
Technology impacts the Civil War

Movement:
Railroads
Steam boats

Communications:
Telegraph
Photography

New weapons
Ft Sumter
Phillip Barton Key
Philip Barton Key
Teresa Sickles
Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley torpedoed the mighty USS Housatonic in Charleston Harbor on February 17, 1864

First submarine to sink a warship

Lost that day, found in 1995, raised in 2000, crew buried in 2004.
p. 523-524
p 524-525, 526-527
John C. Pemberton
Gettysburg Population: about 2,200
wounded outnumbered citizens 9:1

99 of 100 stomach wounds fatal, die in 1-2 days
usually die of amputations within 48 hours
Napoleon cannons

fire 12 pound cannon ball at 800 miles an hour
range of 1 mile

canister shot 30' wide at 100 yards
27 musket balls


Parrot Rifle (several sizes)

fire 10 pound or 20 pound round in the field
fired over 2000 yards
Gettysburg
July 1-3, 1863

10 roads meet at Gettysburg
also has a railroad

Population: about 2,200

Lincoln suspended the right of
habeas corpus
: protection from unlawful imprisonment.

Richard Ewell replaces Jackson as commander of 2nd Corps
J.E.B. Stuart
A. P. Hill
Civil War

Ft. Sumter, SC CSA

East U.S. C.S.

1861
Bull Run McDowell Beauregard/Johnston*

1862

Peninsular McClellan Johnston/Lee*
2nd Bull Run Pope Lee*
Antietam, MD McClellan* Lee (escapes to VA)
Fredricksburg Burnside Lee*

1863
Chancellorsville Hooker Lee*
Gettysburg, PA ___________ Lee

*=wins
Surrenders in North Carolina on April 26, 1865
Major Battle in the East, 1861-1862
Warm up

1. After several months of battle, General McClellan fails to capture Richmond, VA.

2. The first shots of the Civil War were fired here.

3. After General Pope's defeat, General Lee is able to launch an attack into Union territory.

4. The Bloodiest day of battle in US history, the Rebels retreated back into Virginia, McClellen got fired, Lincoln followed it with the Emancipation Proclamation.

5. The first major battle of the Civil War; almost 5,000 casualties; Lesson: this would not be a quick war

a. Fort Sumter
b. First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
c. Peninsular Campaign
d. Second Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
e. Antietam

"If the enemy is there tomorrow, we must attack him."
-Robert E. Lee
Dan Sickles
III Corps
John Bell Hood

loss of left arm after wounded at Gettysburg, July 1863
right leg amputated after Battle of Chickamauga, September 1863
Booth shot April 26, 1865
Four of Booth’s co-conspirators were convicted for their part in the assassination and executed by hanging on July 7, 1865. They included David Herold and Mary Surratt, the first woman put to death by the federal government, whose boarding house had served as a meeting place for the would-be kidnappers.
"Don't know the manners of good society, eh? Well, I guess I know enough to turn you inside out, old gal — you sockdologizing old man-trap."
April 12, 1865
Army of Northern Virginia surrenders Arms and Colors

General Chamberlain orders men to "'Carry Arms" as a sign of respect.
Gordon, at the head of the marching column, outdoes us in courtesy. He was riding with downcast eyes and more than pensive look; but at this clatter of arms he raises his eyes and instantly catching the significance, wheels his horse with that superb grace of which he is master, drops the point of his sword to his stirrup, gives a command, at which the great Confederate ensign following him is dipped and his decimated brigades, as they reach our right, respond to the 'carry.' All the while on our part not a sound of trumpet or drum, not a cheer, nor a word nor motion of man, but awful stillness as if it were the passing of the dead.[11]
Who is this? see p 497
U.S. Population 1860
: 31.4 million
Union 22+ million
Confederacy 9+ million
5.5 million to draw from
3.9 million slaves
Advantages

North
large population
industry
fast transportation/communication
strong economy+currency

South
good military officers
on the defensive
knowledge of the land
farms: lots of cotton
cotton diplomacy
:
Confederacy looks for support from Britain because Britain needs cotton for its textile industry.

fails because:
Britain has large stores of cotton
can get more cotton from Egypt and India
U.S. Army was about 16,000 when the war begins.

Some officers and soldiers go to the Confederacy.

Both sides must recruit and train new troops.
Ken Burn's Civil War
Battle of Shiloh
32:02
Fort Henry on the Tennessee River
February 6, 1862

Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River
February 16, 1862
"An Unconditional and immediate surrender"

Nathan Bedford Forrest escapes with his men
Forrest was called The Wizard of the Saddle
He disrupted the Union in the western theater for the rest of the war, leading raids and disrupting union plans.
Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee
April 6-7, 1862
(McClellan is at beginning of Peninsula Campaign in VA, near Yorktown)

Union Casualties: 13,047 of 63,000
Confederate Casualties: 10,669, of 40,000

Some will call for Grant's removal from command due to heavy losses. Lincoln defends Grant saying, "I can't spare this man--he fights."
Hampton Roads, VA
Mouth of the James River
March 9, 1862
p 539
General Meade
Clara Barton:
Collected medicine and supplies for the battlefield hospitals
Her work formed the basis for the American Red Cross
Full transcript