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The Skeleton, Bones and Joints

Year 10 Science Group Project

Alex Tompkins

on 7 March 2013

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Transcript of The Skeleton, Bones and Joints

The Skeleton, Bones and Joints Skeletons There are three main types of skeletons: Exoskeletons are skeletons that cover the outside of the body, like a suit of armour. They provide excellent protection but must be shed for the animal to grow. Exoskeletons Exoskeletons are found in animals such as spiders, crabs and insects. Endoskeletons Endoskeletons are internal skeletons. These bones are living, and so can be repaired, but they usually don't offer much protection. Endoskeletons are found in all large animals, including humans. Hydrostatic Skeletons Hydrostatic skeletons consist of fluid-filled cavities that can be squeezed by muscles. They're very flexible, but are also very slow and offer no protection at all. Soft-bodied animals such as worms or slugs tend to have hydrostatic skeletons. Bones The bones provide five major functions: Shape The bones provide the frame onto which the rest of the body hangs, like a custom-made coat hanger. Movement Muscles contract and relax in order to move the bones around in their joints. Protection Bones like the ribs and skull are designed to protect vital organs from damage. Storage Bones store valuable minerals such as calcium and phosphates. Production Bone marrow produces most of the cells in our bloodstream, e.g. white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. Joints There are three types of joints: Immovable Joints These joints are totally stuck in place, you cannot move them, e.g. joints between bones of the skull. Slightly Movable Joints You can move them a little, e.g. joints between the vertebrae of the spine. Freely Movable Joints These joints can be moved a lot; e.g. the knees, the elbows, the shoulders and the hips. What's inside a joint? There are three main components of a joint: Synovial Fluid Ligaments Cartilage Synovial fluid reduces friction between the bones and cushions the joint. Cartilage covers and protects the ends of the bones, further reducing friction inside the joint. Ligaments connect the bones to each other to stablilise the joint. By Alex, Matt and Josh
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