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The Eye

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cindy morgan

on 6 June 2013

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Transcript of The Eye

By Cindy Morgan Sensory System: Eye Parts and Functions Iris: Contracts and relaxes to adjust the amount of light that enters the eye, it is also where the blood supply begins
Pupil: constricts to focus the object on the retina and helps protect it from receiving to much light
Lens: Focuses and directs incoming light on the retina
Sclera: Supports and gives structure to the eye
Retina: collects light to create image and helps to recognize different colors
Aqueous Humor: nourishes the cornea, gives shape to the anterior eye and maintains an optimum intraocular pressure
Vitreous Humor: holds the choroid membrane against the retina to ensure an adequate blood supply Parts and Functions Continued Conjunctiva: protects and lubricates the eyelids and part of the eye
Ciliary Muscle: is the blood supply for the eye, has the intrinsic muscle and adjusts the pupil size.
Cornea: helps the eye to focus images
Macula Lutea: the area of the retina on which the light rays focus during daylight
Fovea: an area within the macula that contains only cones and provides the sharpest image.
Optic Disc: an area of the eye that has no light receptors and allows a natural blind spot in vision, it's also where the optic nerve leaves the retina to travel to the brain. Works Cited
http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/eye-health-conjunctivitis
http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/cataract/cataract_facts.asp
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cataracts/DS00050/DSECTION=tests-and-diagnosis
http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/glaucoma-eyes
http://www.medicinenet.com/glaucoma/related-conditions/index.htm
http://www.bls.gov/ooh/production/ophthalmic-laboratory-technicians.htm
http://www.kellogg.umich.edu/education/ophthytech.html
http://education-portal.com/ophthalmology_technician_education.html
http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/iritis
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/iritis/DS01128/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs
http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/astigmatism-eyes
http://careerthoughts.com/optometrist-jobs
http://www.usnewsuniversitydirectory.com/careers/opticians_11099.aspx#.Ua_Wd5wo3IM Iris: ir/o irid/o
Pupil: pupill/o, cor/o, core/o
Lens: phac/o phak/o lent/i
Conjunctiva: conjunctiv/o
Sclera: scler/o
Retina: retin/o
Ciliary Muscle: cycl/o
Cornea: kerat/o corne/o
Optic Disc: papill/o
Aqueous Humor: none
Vitreous Humor: vitre/o
Macula Lutea: macul/o
Fovea: none Combining Forms Diseases/Disorders of the Eye Conjunctivitis
Cataract
Glaucoma
Iritis
Astigmatism Conjunctivitis What is Conjunctivitis? Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva. Conjunctivitis is commonly known as pink eye and is highly contagious What are the signs and Symptoms? Redness in the white of the eye or inner eyelid

Increased amount of tears

Thick yellow discharge that crusts over the eyelashes, especially after sleep

Green or white discharge from the eye

Itchy eyes

Burning eyes

Blurred vision

Increased sensitivity to light Who is affected? Conjunctivitis affects anyone, there is no specific gender, age, culture, and it isn't hereditary. Conjunctivitis can affect anyone of any age, gender, etc Treatment Don't touch or rub the infected eye(s).
Wash your hands often with soap and warm water.
Wash any discharge from your eyes several times a day using a fresh cotton ball or paper towel. Afterward, discard the cotton ball or paper towel and wash your hands with soap and warm water.
Wash your bed linens, pillowcases, and towels in hot water and detergent.
Avoid wearing eye makeup.
Don't share eye makeup with anyone.
Never wear another person's contact lenses.
Wear eyeglasses instead of contact lenses. Throw away disposable lenses or be sure to clean extended wear lenses and all eyewear cases.
Avoid sharing common articles such as unwashed towels and glasses.
If contracted stay home from school until not contagious
Protect your eyes from dirt and other irritating substances.
Non-prescription "artificial tears," a type of eye drops, may help relieve itching and burning from the irritating substances causing your pinkeye. Prevention Pink eye can be prevented by maintaining proper hygiene, frequent hand washing, avoid touching your face seeing as the virus can enter through the eye, nose and mouth

However for allergic conjunctivitis avoiding allergens and taking proper care of contact lenses can reduce the risk. What is the Cause of Conjunctivitis? Viruses

Bacteria

Irritants

Allergies

Pinkeye caused by some bacteria and viruses can spread easily from person to person, but is not a serious health risk if diagnosed promptly. Pinkeye in newborn babies, however, should be reported to a doctor immediately. Cataracts What are Cataracts? A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Most cataracts are related to aging. Cataracts are very common in older people. By age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery.

A cataract can occur in either or both eyes. It cannot spread from one eye to the other. Types of Cataracts Secondary cataract. Cataracts can form after surgery for other eye problems, such as glaucoma. Cataracts also can develop in people who have other health problems, such as diabetes. Cataracts are sometimes linked to steroid use.

Traumatic cataract. Cataracts can develop after an eye injury, sometimes years later.

Congenital cataract. Some babies are born with cataracts or develop them in childhood, often in both eyes. These cataracts may be so small that they do not affect vision. If they do, the lenses may need to be removed.

Radiation cataract. Cataracts can develop after exposure to some types of radiation. Who is at risk for cataracts? People with certain diseases such as diabetes.

Personal behavior such as smoking and alcohol use.

The environment such as prolonged exposure to sunlight

Cataracts also come with old age What are the symptoms? Cloudy or blurry vision.
Colors seem faded.
Glare. Headlights, lamps, or sunlight may appear too bright. A halo may appear around lights.
Poor night vision.
Double vision or multiple images in one eye. (This symptom may clear as the cataract gets larger.)
Frequent prescription changes in your eyeglasses or contact lenses. Detection of Cataracts Visual acuity test.


Dilated eye exam.


Tonometry. An instrument measures the pressure inside the eye. Numbing drops may be applied to your eye for this test. Treatment Treatment of cataracts includes surgery which only is done when the cataracts interferes with everyday activities such as driving, reading, or simply watching tv.

The symptoms of early cataract may be improved with new eyeglasses, brighter lighting, anti-glare sunglasses, or magnifying lenses. Tests A visual acuity test A slit lamp allows your eye doctor to see the structures at the front of your eye under magnification. To prepare for a retinal examination, your eye doctor puts dilating drops in your eyes to open your pupils wide. This makes it easier to examine the back of your eyes (retina). Glaucoma Medications What is Glaucoma Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to your eye's optic nerve and gets worse over time. It's often associated with a buildup of pressure inside the eye. Glaucoma tends to be inherited and may not show up until later in life. Signs and Symptoms Seeing halos around lights
Vision loss
Redness in the eye
Eye that looks hazy (particularly in infants)
Nausea or vomiting
Pain in the eye
Narrowing of vision Types of Surgery
Phacoemulsification,
Extracapsular surgery Dexamethasone
Azelastine hydrochloride
Sodium Cromoglicate
Ketotifen
Nedocromil
Emedastine difumarate Optometrist Opthalmic Technician Optician Treatment Eye drops
Laser surgery
Microsurgery Prevention Glaucoma is not preventable but if it is diagnosed early it can be controlled Who is Affected? Are of African-American, Irish, Russian, Japanese, Hispanic, Inuit, or Scandinavian descent.
Are over age 40.
Have a family history of glaucoma.
Have poor vision.
Have diabetes.
Take certain steroid medications, such as prednisone. Tests Related Illnesses Sarcoidosis
Headache
Diabetes type 1 and 2
Retinal Detachment
Uveitis
Optic Neuritis
Marfan Syndrome
Cataracts
Scleritis
Iritis
Blindness Tonometry
Ophthalmoscopy
Perimetry
Gonioscopy
Pachymetry Related Illnesses Allergic Rhinitis
Glaucoma
Hyperthyroidism
Sinus Headache
Uveitis
Cutaneous Drug Reactions
Glaucoma
Hyperthyroidism
Reiter's Syndrome
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus What does an ophthalmic technician do? An ophthalmic technician is a health professional who helps ophthalmologists. ophthalmic technicians work directly with patients performing duties such as

Taking patient histories
Taking eye measurements
Administering diagnostic tests and eye evaluations
Explaining treatment procedures to patients
Assisting with eye surgery
Providing contact lens education
Administering eye medications Environment Ophthalmic laboratory technicians work in medical equipment and supplies manufacturing laboratories, health and personal care stores, and offices of ophthalmologists and optometrists and work along with them to aid them in surgries, patient history, education about contacts, and administer medications Schedule Most ophthalmic practices hire both full- and part-time positions, but they also llow a good amount of flexibility when it comes to the work schedule Education You must have a high school diploma or the equivalent and should have completed at least two years of college with an emphasis on science. Patients Ophthalmic Technicians deal with anyone from a child to an elder seeing as they aid the ophthalmologist. Ophthalmology Technician Associate's Degree Programs
Students enrolled in a 2-year ophthalmology technician associate's degree program receive in-depth instruction on taking patient histories, taking eye measurements, explaining medical procedures to patients, performing eye evaluations and running diagnostic tests. They also learn to administer eye medication and inform patients about proper contact lens usage. Courses can include ocular anatomy and physiology, refractometry, patient services, pharmacology, light-based imagery, optics and surgical assisting.

Ophthalmology Technician Certificate Programs
Students can also choose to complete a 1-year certificate program. Like the associate's degree programs, these programs include basic math and science instruction and also teach the basic skills needed for patient care. Specific courses may include lensometry, tonometry, clinical optics, contact lenses, visual fields, instrument maintenance and ocular motility. Both associate's and certificate programs for ophthalmology technicians also require clinical training and the completion of a final examination.

Certification for Ophthalmology Technicians
After earning an ophthalmology technician certificate or degree, candidates may take the certification exam administered by the Joint Commission on Allied Health Personnel in Ophthalmology (www.jcahpo.org). This test covers medications, systemic illness, ocular dressings and shields, spectacle principles, evaluation of pupils, color vision testing and ocular emergencies. Although certification - which grants the designation Certified Ophthalmic Technician (COT) - is voluntary, it is recommended and may increase job prospects. Graduate from high school in 2014
Move to Reno
Go to UNR and get an associates degree in nursing
Go on to become a traveling nurse
Be a traveling nurse for 2 years
Go back to Reno Timeline Astigmatism Iritis What is Iritis Inflammation of the iris of the eye Symptoms Pain in the eye or brow region
Worsened eye pain when exposed to bright light
Reddened eye, especially adjacent to the iris
Small or funny shaped pupil
Blurred vision
Headache Who does it affect? Tests/ Diagnosis Slit Lamp
Topical anesthetics
Shining light in the normal, unaffected eye causes pain in the affected eye if iritis is present. This is because shining light in one eye causes both pupils to constrict. Movement of the affected iris causes pain. Treatment Use prescription medications exactly as prescribed.
Wear dark glasses if light worsens your eye pain.
Take mild analgesics, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil), to help control some of the discomfort.
Steroid eyedrops unless a virus or a bacteria caused thee iritis
Antibiotic eye drops
Diliatng eye drops Iritis Can effect anyone at any age, How long does it last?

Iritis will usually clear within one to two weeks if it's traumatic, but non traumatic iritis may take many weeks to go away or even months Prevention There is no prevention, but scientific studies are starting to think stress may be a factor of the recurrent condition of the eye What is it? Astigmatism is when there is an irrregular curvature of the eye that results in blurry vision for both near and far objects. Blurry or distorted vision
Eye strain
Headaches
Squinting to see things clearly
Eye discomfort Symptoms: Diagnosis Astigmatism is diagnosed by having the person do a acuity test to determine how well that person can see. Tests Treatment Corrective lenses
Toric Contact Lenses
Rigid Contact Lenses
Refractive Surgery Visual acuity test
Astigmatic dial
Keratometer
Keratoscope Prevention There is no prevention because the cause is unknown how people acquire Astigmatism or if it is hereditary or not Who's effected? Astigmatism can effect anyone, some scientists say that even when we are born we could possibly have some astigmatism that makes everything blurry but it's hard to prove Related illnesses

headache
Eye strain
Nearsightedness
Farsightedness What is an Optometerist? Environment Schedule Education Patients They will typically deal with patients that are young all the way to old people To become an optometrist, you will need to complete a Doctor of Optometry program. A minimum of three years of undergraduate study is required before you can enroll in an optometry school, but most students go ahead and finish their bachelor's degree while they can. As an undergraduate, taking courses in biology, chemistry, and mathematics can be very helpful.

Before you can enroll in an optometry program, should make sure that it's accredited. Without an accreditation, you will be unable to earn the license necessary to practice. You can find a list of accredited schools here.

It takes four years to complete a Doctor of Optometry program. These programs cover many scientific disciplines, including biochemistry, anatomy, physiology, and visual science. They also provide students with the clinical experience necessary to diagnose problems with patients' visual systems.

After earning a Doctor of Optometry degree, some graduates choose to enter a residency program. These residencies are much shorter than most others in the medical field, and normally last only a year. In a residency, graduates are able to work with experienced optometrists in the area they want to specialze in.

All states require optometrists to be licensed before they can practice. In addition to earning a Doctor of Optometry degree, you will also have to complete all sections of the National Board of Examiners in Optometry exam. Some states have additional requirements, often including taking an additional exam. The schedule will depend on if they work in a retail store such as walmart, their own practice, or a doctors office. Out of the three opportunities the doctors office will have a more regular schedule. The environment will depend on if they work in a retail office in a store such as walmart. Those who work in a doctors office will have a more spaceous environment in which many patients can be helped. Optometrists specialize in diagnosing problems with the visual system and provide corrective solutions that will enhance the patients vision What does an optician do? Optician's are the people that help customers find the frames they want and administer the glasses or contacts that are prescribed by the ophthalmologists and optometrists they also help to fit the glasses. Environment The environment will depend on where they work whether it be in a retail store or a doctors office. Becoming an optician typically begins with a two-year associate’s degree program in opticianry. Often, an apprenticeship with an employer follows graduation from such a program.

While a high school diploma is the minimum education level required to be an optician, most have completed at least some college. Helpful courses include anatomy, physics, trigonometry and algebra. Experience with machinery and tools as well as computer software is also valuable.

In states where licensing is not required, apprenticeship programs are common. These are usually offered by larger employers, and include technical and sales training and instruction in management techniques. Education in patient care, eyeglass fitting and contact lens dispensing is usually provided under the supervision of an experienced optician, optometrist or ophthalmologist.

Community, technical and junior colleges often offer formal optician training programs resulting in associate’s degrees; some universities offer four-year bachelor’s degree programs.

As of 2009, 22 states require opticians to hold licenses. Each state has its own requirements for licensing, but in general, it requires passing either practical and written examinations or certification examinations. Certification is offered by the American Board of Opticianry (ABO) and the National Contact Lens Examiners (NCLE). Applicants for state exams often need to have two to four years of work experience or training. Some states allow graduates from accredited programs to take licensing examinations immediately upon graduation; others require experience ranging from a few months to a year.

Opticians can apply for certification, which indicates a certain level of expertise, and is sometimes required by employers. Certification must be renewed every three years, and continuing education is required. Education Schedule The typical number of hours opticians work is 40 hour weeks, but some work part time. The opticians that work in retail stores may or may not be required to work evenings, weekends, as well as holidays. Patients Opticians will work with the same patients as the optometrists, and ophthalmologist. They will get the patients what their doctor ordered.
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