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Physical properties can be either intensive or extensive

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by

Jennifer Fleites

on 12 May 2015

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Transcript of Physical properties can be either intensive or extensive

Change in shape
Change in size
Change in phase
Melting
Boiling
Evaporation
Condensation
Freezing
Sublimation
Deposition
Irreversible or reversible
Changes in the state of matter
Solid – Molecules are held in fixed positions by intermolecular forces, but they continue to vibrate.
Liquid – Molecules have too much thermal energy to be bound by intermolecular forces, resulting in their ability to move freely.
Gas- Molecules move around even more than a liquid due to the absence of an applied electric field.

Examples
Terms to know
Matter - Anything that takes up space.
Volume- A measure of how much is occupied by an object.
Mass- A measure of the amount of matter an object contains.
Substance- Matter that has a uniform and definite composition.
Intensive properties
Depend on the type of matter in a substance.
Examples of Intensive properties:
Absorbency
Temperature
Hardness
Color
Extensive properties
Depend on the amount of matter in a substance
Examples of Extensive properties are:
Mass
Volume
Length
Total charge
Using chemical properties
Physical changes
Physical properties can be either intensive or extensive
Physical and chemical properties can be used to identify a substance
Physical and Chemical Properties
A change in a substance that does not change what the substance is.
Irreversible
Examples of irreversible physical changes would be
Cutting down a tree
Shredding paper
Filing nails
Cracking an egg

Reversible
physical changes are usually reversible.
Examples of reversible physical changes are:
Changes in the state of matter
Dissolving, melting, freezing, etc.
Key words used to describe irreversible changes are
break, split, grind, cut, and crush
Key words used to describe reversible changes are
boil, freeze, melt, and condense.
Jennifer Fleites
Savin Bravo
Carissa Hess

Using physical properties
Physical Properties
The quality or condition of a substance that can be seen or measured without changing the substance's composition.
Chemical Properties
The ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change.
The Law of Conservation of Mass
In any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved.
Mass is neither created nor destroyed
Chemical Changes
A change in which a substance is changed into a different substance.
Examples
Rusting
Burning
Tarnishing
Polymerization
Decomposing
Chemical changes occur when a chemical reaction causes bonds between atoms to break or to form.
There are 5 types of chemical reaction that cause chemical changes to occur.

Combustion reactions
A reaction in which two things combine to create something new.
A+B → AB
Examples of combustion reactions:
Combustion of methane
CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g)
Burning of naphthalene
C10H8 + 12 O2 → 10 CO2 + 4 H2O
Combustion of ethane
2 C2H6 + 7 O2 → 4 CO2 + 6 H2O
Decomposition reactions
A reaction in which one thing separates into two things.
AB → A + B
Examples of decomposition reactions:
Decompostion of water
2H2O → 2H2 + O2
Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate
NH4NO3 → N2O + 2H2O
Composition
When two things come together to form something new.
Also known as combination or synthesis reaction.
A + B → AB
Examples of composition reactions:
Carbon being burnt in oxygen - Carbon dioxide:
C + O2 → CO2
Calcium oxide combined with water gives calcium hydroxide
2CaO + 2H2O → 2Ca(OH)2
Single Replacement Reaction
When one element replaces another element in a compound.
Also known as single displacement reaction.
A + BC → AC + B
or
A + BC → AB + C
Example of single replacement reaction:
Cu + AgNO3 → Ag + Cu(NO3)2
Fe + Cu(NO3)2 → Fe(NO3)2 + Cu
Double Replacement Reactions
When two chemicals switch places.
AX + BY → AY + BX
Examples of double replacement reactions:
NaCl + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + HCl
AgNO3 + NaCl → AgCl + NaNO3
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