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Learning: Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning
by

Joelie McCrary

on 20 October 2015

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Transcript of Learning: Classical Conditioning

Wrapping Up Classical Conditioning
Little Albert
John Watson's conditioning experiment (1920)
Spontaneous Recovery
: happens when a previously extinct CR suddenly reappears after a period of no training
Factors of Conditioning
Factors of Classical Conditioning
Repetition
: once
acquisition
is established the greater number of trials with the CS and UCS = stronger conditioned response
- when a
natural behavior
is conditioned to a
neutral stimulus
Classical Conditioning
Learning
A permanent change in behavior that results from experience.
Learning
1. That fire was hot?
How did you learn...
Ivan Pavlov (1904)
Pavlov's Dogs
Generalization
: when a conditioned response happens to something that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus
Little Albert
an observable act
an interaction with the environment
The Human Experience Video: Learning
Answer the questions that correspond
Side note: Use of rats in psychology
- models to help understand human mind and behaviors
We can learn through "
conditioning
."
1. Classical Conditioning

2. Operant Conditioning

3. Social Learning
- a connection between the environment and the behavior
Behaviorism
- learning falls under the behavioral perspective
John Watson
"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select - doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and the race of his ancestors”. (Watson, 1924, p. 104)
What do you think?
a learned connection
Pavlov's Dogs
- the dogs were conditioned to perform an involuntary, reflexive behavior to an unrelated neutral stimulus
Terms to Know
UCS: UnConditioned Stimulus
-
NS: Neutral Stimulus
CS: Conditioned Stimulus
UCR = salivate NOT hunger
Put it to Practice...
- Suppose you are eating McDonald's when you begin developing a stomach virus. The virus makes you start to gag. Now every time your family eats at McDonald's the smell makes you gag.
UCS: ____________________

UCR: ___________________

NS: _____________________

CS:______________________

CR: _____________________
Want to try again?
UCR: _________
UCS: _________
NS: __________
CS: __________
CR: __________
Pavlov's Fish
1. How was classical conditioning used at the fisheries?

2. What was the conditioned stimulus?
Describe how United Way supports John Watson's theory.
then
Extinction
: gradually losing the CR
Factors of Conditioning
A dog learns to sit when he hears a command and will sit when hit hears "hit," "fit," and "get."
(and introducing Operant Conditioning)
Classical Conditioning
- approx: 90-95% rodents and 5% primates
-rats are relatively smart animals with lateralized brains
- ability to learn and complete complex tasks
- appeared in 1913
- believes that behaviors occur because of external experiences and learning happens through interaction with the environment
- denies importance of "the mind"
-Ex: Start to sweat at the sight of tests being passed out
the natural stimulus that causes a natural response
Ex: the food in mouth
UCR: UnConditioned Response
- the natural response
- like a reflex
Ex: salivating
- stimuli that does not naturally produce a response
Ex: the sound of the
metronome
CR: Conditioned Response
- the new learned involuntary response to the CS
Ex: salivation
- an originally neutral stimulus that doesn't naturally cause a reflexive response but now does
Ex: sound of metronome
Timing
: best if the CS happens slightly before the UCS is presented
- happens when the CS is repeatedly
presented but not paired with the UCS
Ex: Dog wags tail to sound of can opener
then you use the can opener over and over without giving the dog food
Can we be TAUGHT to fear?
Test Subject: Little Albert 9 month old infant
Experiment
-presented rat
-made a loud noise
-startled baby
-baby became startled at sight of rat
2. To walk cautiously on ice?
3. That letters can be sounded into words?
4. That green means go?
5. Animals may bite?
6. Can you think of a recent experience in which you learned from your environment?
Finding Little Albert
McCrary's Pet Rats
B.F. Skinner
- a form of "
associative learning
"
a behavior is learned by pairing to things together
a reflexive involuntary behavior
something that does not naturally produce a reflexive response
- He realized there was an association between a reflex and a neutral stimulus
salivating and the sight of food
then, salivating at the sight of a food dish
then, salivating at the sound of a bell
- this laid the foundation for Watson's work and field known as "behaviorism"
Ex: the sight of food
Ex: the sight of a food dish
What are the UCRs that come from these UCSs?
UCS
UCR
Puff of Air Blown in Eye
Blink
Hot weather
Sweat
Loud Noise
Flinch
Flash Light Shines in Eye
Pupils constrict
acquisition
: the learning of the paired stimulus relationship
(can only happen after extinction)
Discrimination
: eventually if there are enough pairings, the subject will develop discrimination and will not have a conditioned response to similar stimuli
Read "Whatever Happened to Baby Albert?"
Applications of Classical Conditioning
Advertizing
Products are paired with positive things to make you want to purchase the item
Taste Aversions
(taste aversion conditioning)
Studies
Garcia and Koelling (1966): rats who received radiation and then were given sweet water became nauseated by sweet water
Bovbjerg (1992) Women given kool aid after chemo no longer could stomach the drink
Foreyt & Kennedy (1971) used to lose weight by pairing certain foods with bad smells
Full transcript