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Culture in Iran (Pre-Islamic Revolution)
Transcript of Culture in Iran (Pre-Islamic Revolution)
objects that were small and portable. Animal bodies were very popular and would be altered to appear formal, but mysterious all the same.
Music Before the Revolution Overall, although Iran is influenced by rock, such as Pink Floyd, ACDC and Metallica, it didn't last very long and was discouraged by the government. These "noisy and disturbing" music was to be considered inappropriate in their language.
Rather than pop, rap and rock, there were more traditional music such as Kurdish and Khorasan music. Persian people were into classical, religious songs where it talked about god, historical pasts and love. In the late 1950's and early 1960's, the Saqqakhaneh school opened, creating an impetus towards "Spiritual Pop Art". This movement was inspired by commercial popular votive art, and many famous artists were followers of the movement. This style consisted of "calligraphical or talismanic imagery", however because of the quick boom of success for the original associates, poor imitations and subordinate products appeared. Towards the late 1960's many divergent genre's emerged, from paintings of nature elements, to political artworks. One specific Iranian artist who is well known, Sepehri, painted elements of nature, branching off from his well-known poetry. Massound Arabshahi was influenced by Zoroastrian sources. Sport before 1979 Iran has mountainous regions which have made it popular among foreign visitors
There are a total of 13 resorts
Skiing began in 1938 with the help of two German railroad engineers In 1977 the Tehran Museum of Modern Art was created. However because of the gradualy increasing political turmoil, University art facilities were shut down, because of the new limitations enforced by the new government. Music has been the fierce political and religion debate in Iran. Pop songs were especially discouraged by the government because of the Islamic laws and restrictions. During the 1950's, the most popular pop artist in Iran named Vigen Derderian introduced the guitar to Iran.They enjoyed and only permitted classical, folk and religious songs, where women and man are allowed to perform on stage. Women were not allowed to perform in front of men, only in front of women because of religious reasons. Kurdistan is one of a very popular music in Iran,(AKA: Kurdish music) which vary depending on the climate and geography. For example, people who live in the mountains use different melodies compared to people living in deserts and meadows. Most of the music is about stories of romance and loss of a lover, much like what we listen to in the present (except it is not like rap). Similar to Kurdish music, Khorasan is also popular and listened to during that time. Khorasan varies a lot more compared to Kurdish music. Starting from the North to the South, melodies and lyrics starts to change depending on the location. It varies from language, and religion. The singer in Khrosan music is called the "Bakhshi" where bahkshi narrates a story while playing an instrument. Soccer is by far still the most popular sport. Has participated in 3 World Cups. Was First to host Asian Games (1974) Wrestling is the National Sport
Varzesh-e Pahlavani is a wrestling folk hero
Iran is considered an elite nation in this sport
Polo was invented in Persia around the 9th century
Women were allowed into stadiums until the 1979 revolution It was on August 18, 1900 that the first Iranian photographer recorded images of life on celluloid. Mirza Ebrahim Khan Akkas Bashi was the official photographer of Mozaffar al-Din Shah's court, who accompanied the monarch in his first visit to Europe. He was introduced to the "cinematographe" in France while they stayed in Paris in July of the same year to see the Exposition.film was brought to Iran by the King as a tool of entertainment for members of the monarchy and the royal court. After seeing the first film of his life, Mozaffar al-Din Shah writes in his travelogue diary: unlike many other places in the world, where cinema as marketable commodity was used as mass-entertainment medium , in Iran cinema circled amongst courtly nobles and the Royal family (like in Japan). Cinematography had to be presented on occasions such as weddings and circumcisions or other festivities in aristocratic settings, usually projected along with French comedy shorts that were imported through Russia. The first public screening took place in Tehran in 1904, presented by Mirza Ebrahim Khan Sahaf Bashi. He arranged the screening in the back of his antique shop. In 1905, Sahaf Bashi opened the first movie theater in Cheragh Gaz Avenue in the national capital. There were no chairs in the Saloon and audiences had to sit on the carpeted floor, as they would sit in mosques or at Ta'zieh shows. Sahaf Bashi's cinema did not last for more than a month, because of his political activities as a nationalist and an individual who was lobbying for a constitutional monarchy. Also, religious opposition provided the Shah's police with a sufficient excuse to arrest Sahaf Bashi, close down the cinema and confiscate his projector and related equipment. He was soon sent into exile. Perhaps this was the first instance of censorship in the history of Iranian cinema.
Two years later, a few Russian and Armenian immigrants individually tried to establish new movie theaters in Tehran. Russi Khan was the most successful figure among these new cinema owners. With the connections that he held in the Royal court, he could expand his business despite religious contentions. The presence of the Russian Army in the north and Tehran was another support for Russi Khan, since they shared the same nationality and provided an additional market for his enterprise. In 1909, with fall of the Mohammad Ali Shah (heir of Mozaffar al-Din Shah) and the success of the constitutionalists, Russi Khan lost his support. Consequently, his film theatre and photography studios were destroyed by the public. Soon after, other cinema theatres in Tehran closed down.
After Akkas Bashi, photographer for Mozafar al'Din shah, and Russi Khan, who was also hired by the Royal family to film court activities, Khan-baba Khan Mo'tazedi was the third Iranian person involved with cinematography. As an engineering student living in Paris, Mo'tazedi found work in a film company. This enabled him to learned how to operate a movie camera and how to process film. With his return to Iran in 1916 Mo'tazedi brought some film equipment (films, camera, projector and processing material). What began as a hobby eventually became his profession.
In 1925 a young Armenian-Iranian, Ovanes Ohanian (Oganianse), a Russian national who studied film in Cinema Akademi Of Moscow, returned to Iran. His goal was to establish a film industry in the country. Since he found it impossible to initiate any production without professionals in the field, Ohanian decided to begin a film school in Tehran. Within five years he managed to run the first session of the school under the name: "Parvareshgahe Artistiye cinema" (The Cinema Artist Educational Centre). Acting and performance, rather than film production, were the cornerstones of the institution.
The period of 1937 to 1948 marked a decade of non-productivity in the history of Iranian national cinema. One can find many reasons for these years of cinema hibernation. The most obvious causes are: Iran's general political crisis generated by the Second World War; the country's occupation by allies; the undermining of the cinema industry by the establishment; and, of course, the domination of foreign films (especially Hollywood).The movie that really boosted the economy of Iranian cinema and initiated a new genre was Ganj-e-Qarun (Croesus Treasure), made in 1965 by Siamak Yasami. Yasami had worked with Kooshan prior to establishing his own company; Porya Film, in 1960. A huge financial success, Ganj-e-Qarun grossed over seventy million Rials (one million dollars). The theme of the film concerns the worthless and desperate life of the upper middle class in contrast with the poor and happy working class, which is 'rich' in morals.From 1950 to the mid-1960's the Iranian film industry grew rapidly. Many studios were established as well as others that entered the cycle of the film industry independently. There were 324 films produced during this period (1950-1965). By 1965 there were 72 movie theatres in Tehran and 192 in other provinces. Iranian cinema of today is the outcome of a tradition developed in the pre-revolution era. MOVIES IN IRAN