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Geography Chapter 1

An intro to Geography
by

Brad Hayes

on 12 August 2014

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Transcript of Geography Chapter 1

Introduction to Geography
Geography is the study of EVERYTHING on Earth.
People, Places, Vegetation, Climate, The Air, The Water…Everything.

Chapter 1
#5 Environment & Society
The characteristics, distributions, and complexity of Earth's cultures.
Look at language, religion, music, dance, etc.
Where are these cultures located?
How do they help make up the Earth’s culture?
#4 Human Systems
The characteristics and spatial distribution
of ecosystems on Earth's surface.
#3 Physical Systems
How to analyze the organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface.
#1 World in Spatial Terms
The World In Spatial Terms
The 6 Essential Elements of Geography
How to apply geography to interpret the past.

To apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
#6 Uses of Geography
…And how human systems
affect physical systems
#5 Environment & Society
How forces of cooperation and conflict
among people influence
the division and control
of Earth's surface.
#4 Human Systems
The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.
#4 Human Systems
The characteristics, distribution, and migration
of human populations on Earth's surface.
Why do people live where they do?
#4 Human Systems
BIBLE BELT
How culture and experience influence people's
perception of places and regions.
#2 Places & Regions
#2 Places & Regions
PLACE-A specific area with physical and/or
human meaning.
#2 Places & Regions
How human actions
modify the physical
environment.
#5 Environment & Society
The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface.
#3 Physical Systems
#1 World in Spatial Terms
#1 The World in Spatial Terms
Having a spatial perspective is important in studying Geography
This means it is important to look at patterns and how things are spread out and connected
There are two branches of Geography
Human Geography looks at the distribution and characteristics of people
Physical Geography looks at the distribution and characteristics of natural
things on earth like landforms, rivers, oceans, cities, etc.
There are several subfields, two are:
Cartography-the study of maps and mapmaking
Meteorology-the study of weather
Regions are divided into three categories
Formal regions-same definition as “region”
Functional regions-Made of different places linked together to work as a unit
Perceptual Regions-Regions that reflect human feelings and attitudes.
How physical systems
affect human systems.
Why do I need this?
So you don't end up like Ms. South Carolina
Uses of Geography
Environment & Society
Human Systems
Physical Systems
Places & Regions
THERE ARE THREE WAYS TO LOOK AT THE
WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS:

1-SPATIAL RELATIONS
how places, people, and features of the
Earth are connected based on location
2-ABSOLUTE LOCATION
the exact place on Earth that something is located, using latitude and longitude.
3-RELATIVE LOCATION
describing one location in relation to another.
REGION-A group of places united by
similar characteristics
Subfields that REQUIRE Geography
ARCHAEOLOGY, CARTOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, OCEANOGRAPHY, ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATOLOGY, ETC.
Geographers use a grid system of LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE to organize the world.
Latitude and Longitude can be used to find ANY specific place on earth.
Using Latitude and Longitude gives us ABSOLUTE LOCATION.
ORGANIZING THE GLOBE
Latitude measures 0 to 90 degrees NORTH and SOUTH from the EQUATOR
Lines of latitude are also called parallels
There are several important lines of latitude...
LATITUDE
CYLINDRICAL, or MERCATOR projections are are made as if a cylinder has been placed over the earth.
ADVANTAGES-Directions and shapes are accurate
DISADVANTAGES-Places in higher latitudes are bigger than they should be
MAP PROJECTIONS AND TYPES OF MAPS
Longitude measures 0 to 180
degrees EAST and WEST from
the PRIME MERIDIAN
Lines of Longitude are also called
meridians
At 180 degrees, the INTERNATIONAL
DATE LINE occurs
LONGITUDE
HEMISPHERES, CONTINENTS AND OCEANS
Remember, when we list absolute location
we list (latitude, longitude)
What is the absolute location
of Buffalo, New York?
HEMISPHERES
Because the world is round, but most maps are flat,
there is a problem with accuracy of maps
There are 4 (or 5 depending on who you ask)
oceans on Earth--Atlantic, Indian, Pacific,
and Arctic (and Southern)
There are seven continents on earth
The biggest, Asia, is 5 times the size
of Australia, which is the smallest

Every place on Earth is in two Hemispheres
LONGITUDE measures
0 to 180 degrees EAST and
0 to 180 degrees WEST from the PRIME MERIDIAN
AT 180 DEGREES, the
INTERNATIONAL DATE
LINE is located.
(MORE ON
THAT LATER)
READING MAPS AND SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS
COMPASS ROSE
--SHOWS DIRECTION
N, S, E, W are
CARDINAL DIRECTIONS
NE, NW, SE, SW, are
INTERMEDIATE DIRECTIONS
MAP SCALE
--SHOWS DISTANCE
MAP LEGEND or KEY
--SHOWS
MEANINGS OF SYMBOLS OR COLORS ON A MAP
CONTOUR MAP
ELEVATION MAP
A common mistake is
to assume the west is
desert and the east is
grassland.
POPULATION DENSITY MAP
POPULATION PYRAMID
By using the Equator and the Prime Meridian,
we can tell what hemisphere a place is located
FLAT-PLANE projections look at one point on the Earth
ADVANTAGES-Give true directions for navigation
DISADVANTAGES-Distorts the shapes and sizes of places
CONIC projections are made as if a cone had been placed over the earth
ADVANTAGES-Most accurate of all map projections
DISADVANTAGE-Can’t show the entire Earth
Full transcript