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Linda Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription, Compromise, a
Transcript of Linda Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription, Compromise, a
"Why do children seem to re-create the social inequalities of their elders long before they themselves experience any barriers to pursuing their dreams?"
According to Gottfredson, people sometimes compromise their career aspirations because of limiting factors such as prestige, sex type, and field of interest. She states that a "career choice is an attempt to place oneself in the broader social order."
Gottfredson states that people distinguish occupations according to the dimensions of : "masculinity-femininity, occupational prestige and field of work.
5 Principles of Circumscription
Linda Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation by Lorena Reyes
This theory describes the process leading to the formulation of occupational aspirations in childhood and adolescence.
Gottfredson developed her theory to answer the following question:
She further states that occupational prestige is positively correlated with the degree of intellectual capacity required for job performance.
This concept involves the process of eliminating unacceptable occupational alternatives based primarily on gender and prestige.
1. Circumscription is guided by the growing capacity of children to understand and organize complex information about themselves.
2.Because occupational aspirations are linked with one's sense of self, the occupations we prefer tend to be linked to one's own sense of self.
4. Children progressively eliminate occupational options and their self-concepts increase in complexity and clarity.
3. Children begin to grapple among with more complex decision about people while they are developing their own self-conceptions.
5. Circumscription process is gradual typically not immediate obvious.
Gottfredson 4 Stages of the Circumscription Process.
Gottfredson's Theory in Practice
Stage One: Orientation to Size and Power
between ages 3 and 5, children classify things in simple terms, they orient themselves to the size difference between themselves and adults.
Stage Two: Orientation of Sex Roles
Occurs between ages 6 abd 8, children become aware of difference sex roles between men and women. Their occupational aspirations reflect that certain jobs are for women and certain jobs are for men.
Stage 3: Orientation to Social Validation
Occurs between ages 9 and 1, they are able to think more abstractly and become more aware of social class and prestige
Occupations that are not in line with their perceived ability levels and do not meet the approval of their social reference group are no longer considered
Stage Four: Orientation to the Internal, Unique Self
Occurs ages 14 and above, adolescents become more introspective and self-aware. They begin identifying internally generated goals and self-concepts.
Gottfredson believes that it is important to provide career education programs, to young people in the early stages of development.
These programs should consider the following :
They should be sensitive to the mental capabilities of the age group.
Programs should introduce students to the full breadth of options but in a manageable way.
Programs should display the youngsters their circumscription of alternatives so that its rationale can be explored.
Programs should be sensitive to the dimensions of self and occupations of self and occupations along which circumscription and compromise take place.
Research supporting Gottfredson 's Theory has shown to be in decling and very limited.
Research that has been done focused on circumscription related to social class, gender, and intelligence.
Brott found that some implications for counseling include incorporating atypical role models for elementary school students, proactive shaping of choices for secondary school students, and an emphasis on prestige and sex-type considerations for all students and clients.
(Brott, Pamela 1993)
Gottfredson believes that occupaional choices are made based upon sexual identity, social class, and interest. Therefore, career programs should be designed with these concepts in mind.
Lorena's Toolkit for Gottfredson's Theory of Circumcription, Compromise & Self-Creation
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