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Common Laboratory Tests

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Amy Kotrla

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of Common Laboratory Tests

AST (SGOT)
An aspartate aminotransferase test measusres the amount of this enzyme in the blood. Normal levels for men are 14-20 U/L; 10-36 U/L for women. Anything above or below would be considered abnormal. High levels can be caused by liver damage, decay of a large tumor, heart attack/failure, high doses of vitamin A, or some types of cancer.
Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)
This test includes a variety of blood tests that provides information about the patient's metabolism. Normal ranges for the blood chemicals tested are: BUN: 7-20 mg/dL, CO2: 20-29 mmol/L, Creatinine: .8-1.4 mg/dL, Glucose: 64-128 mg/dL, Serum chlorid: 101-111 mmol/L, Serum potassium: 3.7-5.2 mEg/L and Serum sodium: 136-144 mEg/L. Anything above or below these values would be considered abnormal. Higher levels may be due to: dehydration, heart attack, kidney disease/failure, too much potassium/salt, and many more. Lower levels may be due to: low protein diet, malnutrition, diarrhea, underactive thyroid gland, too much insulin, aspirin overdose, over-hydration, and many more.
Basophils
Albumin
The test can determine if the patient has liver or kidney disease, and if the body is not absorbing enough protein. The normal range is 3.4 - 5.4 grams per deciliter (g/dL) so anything higher/lower would be the abnormal highs and lows. Low results may be a sign of kidney disease or liver disease. Increased blood albumin levels may be due to dehydration, and a high protein diet.
ALT (SGPT)
This test is used to see if a patient has liver damage. The normal range is 10-40 international units per liter (IU/L), so anything higher or lower than that would be considered abnormal. Increased levels can be due to Cirrhosis, liver necrosis, hepatitis, hemochromatosis, lack of blood flow to the liver, liver cancer, medications that are toxic to the liver, mononucleosis, or pancreatitis.
Common Laboratory Tests

Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
This test measures the amount of the enzyme, APL, that is in the blood. It checks for liver disease, any possible damage to the liver, and to see how well the treatment for Paget's disease or vitamin D deficiency is working. The normal range is 25-100 units per liter (U/L) so anything above/below would be abnormal. High levels can be caused by hepatitis, blockage of the bile ducts gallstones, cirrhosis, liver cancer, or cancer that has spread to the liver from another part of the body caused by bone diseases. Low levels can be caused by a lack of nutrients in the diet.
Anion Gap
This test measures the difference between a and cations in the bood and is used to diagnose acid-base imbalances in the body. The normal levels are 7-16 mEg/L (without calculating in potassium), so levels higher or lower than this would be abnormal. If the results are higher it may mean the patient has metabolic acidosis.
This test measures the amount of basophils in the blood and is used to help evaluate and manage treatments including certain allergic disorders, blood disorders, neoplastic disorders, and infections caused by parasites. The normal range is .5%-3%. Anything above or below would be abnormal. An abnormal about of basophils can be due to allergic runny-nose, chronic nyeloid leukemia, disease caused by a parasite, or myelodysplastic syndrome.
Common laboratory tests with blood as the necessary specimen:

Bilirubin
This test is used to measure the amount of bilirubin in the blood which is a yellowish pigment in the bile. The normal levels of total bilirubin is .3-1.o mg/dL or 5-17 mmol/L. Anything above or below would e considered abnormal. High levels can be caused by infections, disease that cause liver damage, and medicines that may increase bilirubin levels. Low levels may be due to medicines that decrease the bilirubin levels.
BUN: Creatinine Ratio
This test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea. The normal BUN-to-creatinine ratio is 10:1-20:1. Anything above or below these levels wold be abnormal. High values may indicate that the patient has kidney injury or disease. Many medicines can create a high BUN level. Low values may be caused by over-hydration or a low protein diet. Women and children have a lower BUN value than men because of the way their bodies break down protein.
BUN (urea nitrogen)
This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood. The normal result is usually 6-10 mg/dL. Anything above or below would be considered abnormal. High results may be due to congestive heart failure, excessive protein leels in the GI tract, gastrointestinal bleeding, hypovolemia, heart attack, and kidney disease. Low results may be due to liver failure, low protein diet, malnutrition, and over-hydration.
Calcium
A doctor will order this test if the patient has certain symptoms of certain bone diseases, certain cancers, chronic kidney disease, disorders of the parathyroid glamd, chronic liver disease, disorders that affect how intestines absorb nutrients, overactive thyroid gland, or taking too much thyroid hormone medication. Normal levels range from 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL. Anything above or below this value would be considered abnormal. Higher levels can be caused by being on best rest, taking too much calcium/vitamin D, HIV/AIDS, hyperparathyroidism, Pget's Disease, and many more. Lower levels can be caused by hypoparathyroidis, kidney failure, vitakmin D deficiency, and many more.
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
This test is used to see how the kidney and liver and working, blood sugar, cholesterol, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and protein levels. The normal levels are in: Albumin: 3.9-5 g/dL, Alkaline phosphatase: 44-147 IU/L, ALT: 8-37 IU/L, AST: (10-34 IU/L, BUN: 7-20 mg/dL, calcium: 8.5-10.9 mg/dL, chloride: 96-106 mmol/L, CO2: 20-29 mmol/L, creatinine: .8-1.4 mg/dL, glucose test: 70-100 mg/dL, potassium: 3.7-5.2 mEg/L, sodium: 136-144 mEg/L, bilirubin: .2-1.9 mg/dL, and protein: 6.3-7.9 g/dL. Abnormal results can be be due to a variety of different medical conditions such as kidney failure, breathing problems, and diabetic related complications.
CO2
This test is most often done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel. Changes in a patient's CO2 level may suggest that he/she is losing/retaing fluid. It may cause an imblanance in the body's electrolytes. The normal range is 23-29 mEg/L. Anything higher or lower would be considered abnormal. Higher results may be due to breathing disorders, Cushing Syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, or vomiting. Lower results may be due to Addison disease, diarrhea, ethylene glycol poisoning, kidney disease, lactic acidosis, metabolic acidosis, methanol poisoning, or salicylate toxcity (asprin OD).
Creatinine
This test is done to see how well the patient's kidneys work. Normal results for men is .7 to 1.3 mg/dL and .6 to 1.1 mg/dL for women. Higher levels are because of acute tubular necrosis, dehydration, diabetic nephropathy, eclampsia, kidney failure, and many more. Lower levels are because of the late stage of muscular dystrophy and myasthenia gravis.
GGTP (Gamma-GT)
This test is used to detect diseases of the liver or bile ducts. It is done with different tests (ALT, ATP, and bilirubin tests) to tell the difference between liver or bile duct disorders and bone disease to monitor alcohol abuse. The normal range is 0-51 IU/L. Higher levels may be due to alcohol abuse, diabetes, flow of bile from the liver is blocked, heart failure, hepatitis, liver ishchemia, liver necrosis, liver tumor, lung disease, pancreas dease, scarring of the liver, or use of drugs that are toxic to the liver.
Globulin, A/G ratio
This test is used to look at globulin proteins in the blood. The normal results are serum globulin: 2-3.5 g/dL, Igm component: 75-300 mg/dL, IgG componentL 650-1850 mg/dL, IgA component: 90-350 mg/dL. Higher levels of gamma globulin may indicate: acute infection, chronic inflammatory disease, hyperimmunization, multiple myeloma, or Waldenstrom's syndrome.
Glucose
This is is taken by blood or urine. The doctor will order this test if there is a sign of diabetes, to monitor patients who have diabetes, or if a patients has a change in behavior, fainting spells, or seizures for the first time. Fasting glucose test normal: 70-100 mg/dL. Anything above or below is abnormal. Higher results indicate prediabetes, overactive thyroid gland, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, rare tumors. Lower levels are caused by hypopituitarism, underactive thyroid gland, insulinoma, too little food, or too much insulin.
FTI (T7)
This test shows how much thyroid hormone is free in the blood stream to work on the body. Low results in an adult are .7-.8 ng/dL. High results in an adult are 1.4-1.8 ng/dL. Conditions that will decrease the values are pregnancy, elevated estrogen levels, acute hepatitis, or drugs that prevent ovulation. Conditions that will increase values are protein malnutrition, chronic liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, phenytoin therapy, heparin therapy, uremia, large doses of salicylates, or antibiotics.
Granulocytes
This test measures the percentage of each type of WBC in the patient's blood. The normal amounts are in: neutrophils: 40%-60%, lymphocytes: 20%-40%, monocytes: 2%-8%, eosinophils: 1%-4%, basophils: .5%-1%, and band: 0%-3%. Any other amount that is higher or lower is abnormal. An increased percentage may indicate viral infection, acute stress, trauma, chemotherapy, leukemia, parasitic infection, and cancer. A decreased percentage may indicate anemia, widespread infection, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and an acute allergic reaction.
HDL - Cholesterol
This test is performed to measure the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Below 40 mg/dL and above 60 mg/dL are considered abnormal. Many women at risk of heart disease have high cholesterol levels, and may benefit from cholesterol lowering medication. With menopause cholesterol levels may change.
Hematocrit
The doctor may order this test if the patient has anemia, diet deficiency, leukemia, or another medical condition. Normal results are within 36.1%-50.3%. Anything above/below would be abnormal. High levels may indicate congenital heart disease, dehydration, and pulmonary fibrosis. Low levels may indicate anemia, bleeding, destruction of the red blood cells, and malnutrition.
Hemoglobin
This test is done as part of a complete blood count (CBC). The normal amount ranges from 13.8-17.2 gm/dL for men and 12.1-15.1 gm/dL for women. Lower levels may be due to: anemia, bleeding, destruction of RBC, leukemia, malnutrition, nutritional deficiencies of iron, overhydration. Higher levels may be due to congenital heart disease, cor pulmonate, dehydration, erythocytosis, low blood oxygen levels, pulmonary fibrosis, polycythemia vera.
HIV Antibody
This test is necessary to screen people who want to be tested, people in high risk groups, people with certain conditions, pregnant women to prevent passing to virus to the baby, and when a patient has an unusual infection. A negative test result normal. However, people with early HIV infections can have a negative test result. A positive ELISA screening test does not necessarily mean that the person has HIV infection. Certain conditions may lead to a false positive result such as Lyme disease, syphilis and lupus.
Iron
This test measures the amount of iron in the blood to see how well the iron is metabolized in the body. Normal results of serum iron is 70-175 mcg/dL for men and 50-150 mcg/dL for women. A low amount of iron indicates anemia, and the high amount is due to hemochromatosis.
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
LDH levels are measured from a sample of blood to check for tissue damage. Normal results are 140-280 U/L. Anything above or below would be considered abnormal. High levels indicate blood flow deficiency, cerebrovascular accident, heart attack, muscular dystrophy, and pancreatitis.
Lipid Profile
This test serves as an initial broad medical screening for abnormalities in lipids. The abnormal level is 130 mg/dL. The results of this test can identify certain genetic diseases and can determine approximate risks for cardiovascular disease, certain forms of pancreatitis, and other disease.
Lymphocytes
This test is used to evaluate and manage disorders of the blood or the immune system or to evaluate and manage certain types of cancer. The normal percentage is 22%-44%. Anything above/below is abnormal. Abnormal results can mean bacteria in blood, chronic leukemia, lymphocytopenia, lymphocytosis, mono, SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), or a weakened immune system
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)
This test is used to reflect the hemoglobin content of the red blood cells and to measure types/the causes of anemia. The normal range is 32-36 g/dL. Anything above/below would be abnormal. Normocytic/normochromic anemia is caused by sudden blood loss, prosthetic heart valves, sepsis, tumor, aplastic anemia. Microcytic/hypochromic anemia is caused by iron deficiency, lead poisoning or thalassemia. Microcytic/ normochromic anemia is from a deficiency of the hormone erythropoietin from kidney failure. Macrocytic/normochromic anemia is from chemotherapy, folate deficiency or vitamin B-12 deficiency.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)
This test measures the average concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. The normal results are 31-37 g/dL. Anything higher or lower would be abnormal. The results may be low if the patient is suffering from an iron deficiency, while high results may be associated with a few different conditions.
Mean Corpsuscular Volume (MCV)
This test is used to determine the average volume of red cells in a specimen. The normal results are 80-96 fL. Anything above/below would be considered abnormal. Low MCV indicates microcytic and high MCV indicates macrocytic.
Monocytes
The lab test measures the percentage of WBC that the patient has. The normal percentage is 2%-8%. Anything higher or lower would be abnormal. An increased amount of monocytes may be due to chronic inflammatory disease, parasitic infection, and tuberculosis. A decreased amount of monocytes may be due to chemotherapy, HIV infection, leukemia, radiation therapy.
Neutrophils
This test is used to evaluate and manage immune, blood, and cancer disorders including suspected neutropenia. The normal amount is 8-7.7 X 103 cells/microL. Any abnormal amount can be because of chronic benign neutropenia, congenital neutropenia, cyclical neutropenia, drug-induced neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, neutropenia, psoriasis.
Phosphorus
This test measures the amount of phosphate in a blood sample. The normal result is 2.7-4.5 mg/dL. High phosphate levels may be caused by kidney disease, underactive parathyroid gland, acromegaly, and healing fractures.
Platelet Count
This test is used to measure how many platelets you have in your blood and the amount of platelets in your blood can be affected by many diseases. They may be counted to monitor or diagnose diseases or identify the cause of excess bleeding. Normal counts are 150,000 - 400,000 mcL. Low platelet count may be caused by cancer chemotherapy, certain medication, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hemolytic anemia, hypersplenism, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), leukemia, massive blood transfusion, prosthetic heart valve, thombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), Celiac disease, vitamin K deficiency. Higher platelets can be due to anemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), polycythemia vera, primary thrombocythemia, recent spleen removal.
Potassium
This test is done to check levels for people having kidney dialysis, people with high BP for people with kidney problems, to see whether certain cancer treatments are causing cell lysis, or to check the effects for extra nutrition on potassium levels. The normal level is 3.5-5.2 mEq/L. Anything higher/lower would be abnormal. Too high or low can have these symptoms: muscle cramps, nausea, diarrhea, frequent urination, dehydration, low blood pressure, confusion, irritability, paralysis, and change in the heart rhythm.
PTT
This test is done to see if there are problems with bleeding or blood clotting. It may also be used to monitor patients that are taking heparin. In general, clotting should occur between 25 - 35 seconds. If the person is taking blood thinners, clotting takes up to two and a half times longer. If the blood takes too long to clot it may be due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), Factor XII or Factor XI deficiency, hemophilia A/B, hypofibrinogenemia, liver disease, lupus anticoagulants, malabsorption, Vitamin K deficiency, or Von Willebrand’s.
PSA
This test is done to screen for prostate cancer. It measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen in your blood. An abnormal high may indicate the presence of prostate cancer or enlarged/ inflamed prostate can also increase PSA levels. Abnormal lows are not an indication of prostate cancer.
PT Test
This test is taken to see if the patient has a blood clotting disorder. The normal range for someone who is not taking a blood thinner medication is 11 - 13.5 seconds. When it takes a while for the blood to clot the result is abnormal. A PT result that is too high or too low in someone who is taking warfarin (Coumadin) may be due to: wrong dose of medication, drinking alcohol, over the counter medications, or eating food that changes the way the blood thinning medication works in the body.
RBC Count
This test can be taken from either urine or blood. This test is always a part of the CBC Count (Complete Blood Count) and may be used to help diagnose disease, such as anemia and other conditions affecting the Red blood count. The normal range is 4.7-6.1 million cells/mcL for men and 4.2-5.4 million cells/mcL for women. Higher than normal results may be due to cigarette smoking, congenital heart disease, kidney tumor, low blood oxygen levels. Lower than normal count of RBC may be due to anemia, bone marrow failure, leukemia, hemorrhage, and malnutrition.
Red Cell Distributionn Width (RDW)
The test measures the pulses that are produced by RBC. The normal RDW level is 10.2%-14.5%. Anything above or below would be considered abnormal. Having a high result of RDW means that the blood cells vary a lot in size. Low results mean that the blood cells vary very little in size.
Sodium
This test checks to see how much sodium is in the blood. The normal range is 136-145 mEg/L. Anything above or below would be considered abnormal. Abnormally high results indicate hypernatremia which is caused by a high-sodium diet, or by not drinking enough water and being dehydrated. Dehydration may also be caused by severe vomiting/diarrhea, Cushing’s syndrome, kidney disease or injury, or a condition called diabetes insipidus. High levels may also be caused by high levels of the aldosterone (hyperaldosteronism). Abnormally low results indicate hyponatremia which is causes by a lot of sweating, burns, severe vomiting/ diarrhea, and drinking too much water.
Thyroxine (T4)
This test is done to check the patient’s thyroid function or if he/she has any signs of a thyroid disorder (hyperthyroidism, hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, thyroid nodule. The normal range is 4.5-11.2 mcg/dL. Anything higher or lower is abnormal. Greater levels of T4 may be due to conditions that involve an overactive thyroid like: Graves disease, germ cell tumors, high levels of the protein that carries T4 in the blood, iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, toxic multinodular goiter, trophoblastic disease, over-treatment with thyroid hormone medicine. Low levels may be due to Hypothyroidism, illness, malnutrition, use of certain medications.
Total Protein
This test is done to diagnose nutritional problems (liver or kidney disease). If it is abnormal, more tests will need to be run. The normal range is 6.0 to 8.3 gm/dL. Results above or below would be considered abnormal. High levels can be due to chronic inflammation or infection (HIV, hepatitis B/C), multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom’s disease. Lower levels can be due to agammaglobulinemia, bleeding, extensive burns, glomerulonephritis, liver disease, malabsorption, malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy.
Triglycerides
This test is used to determine your LDL cholesterol and to help determine your risk of developing heart disease. Borderline High: 150 - 199 mg/dL High: 200 - 499 mg/dL Very High: 500 mg/dL or above. High levels may be due to Cirrhosis or liver damage, low protein diet and high in carbohydrates, hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, poorly controlled diabetes. Low levels may be due to low fat diet, hyperthyroidism, malabsorption syndrome, malnutrition.
Sedimentation Rate (ERS)
This test is done to find out if inflammation is present check the progress of a disease, or to see how well a treatment is working. The normal range is 0-15 mm/hr for men and 0-20 mm/hr for women. Any result that is higher/low is abnormal. High rates may be due to cancer, chronic kidney disease, viral pregnancy, autoimmune diseases, inflammation of joints and blood vessels, and many more. Low rates may be due to high blood sugar levels, polycythemia, sickle cell disease, or severe liver diseases.
T3 Uptake
The test is performed to check your thyroid function. The range for normal values is 100 - 200 ng/dL. Any value above/below is abnormal. High levels may be a sign of an overactive thyroid gland, T3 Thyrotoxicosis, and toxic nodular goiter. Low levels may be due to short or long-term illness, thyroiditis, starvation, and an underactive thyroid gland.
Uric Acid
This test is done to see if you have high levels or uric acid in your blood. High levels can cause gout or kidney disease or if you are about to have chemotherapy which can increase the amount of uric acid in your blood. Normal values range between 3.5 and 7.2 mg/dL. Values higher/lower are abnormal. High levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia) because of: acidosis, alcoholism, chemotherapy related side effects, diabetes, excessive exercise, gout, hypoparathyroidism, lead poisoning, leukemia, medullary cystic kidney disease, nephrolithiasis, polycythemia vera, purine-rich diet, renal failure, toxemia of pregnancy. Lower levels because of: fanconi syndrome, low purine diet, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) syndrome, or Wilson’s Disease
WBC Count
The necessary specimens are blood and urine.This test measures the amount of white blood cells. The normal range is 4,500-10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). a. A high number of WBC’s may be due to anemia, bone marrow tumors, and infectious disease. A low number of WBC’s may be due to a bone marrow deficiency or failure, disease of the liver/spleen, and radiation therapy or exposure.
WBC Differentiation
This is done to find out how many of each WBC there are to see if there is an infection present in the body of the patient. 4500-10000 mcL is the normal range. Anything above/below is abnormal. A low number can be due to bone marrow deficiency or failure, collagen-vascular diseases, disease of the lover or spleen, radiation therapy or exposure. A high number can be due to anemia, bone marrow tumors, infectious diseases, inflammatory disease, leukemia, severe emotional or physical stress, tissue damage.
Common laboratory tests with urine as the necessary specimen:
Bacteria
This test is done if a patient has a serious blood infection. It is abnormal if the labs come back positive with an infection called "sepsis" and if other type of blood and fungus will be found in the blood culture test.
Ph
The test is used to evaluate respiratory diseases and conditions that affect the lungs. It helps determine the effectiveness of oxygen therapy. Abnormal results may be due to lung, kidney, or metabolic diseases. Head or neck injuries or other injuries that affect breathing can also lead to abnormal results.
Protein
This test is often done to diagnose nutritional problems, kidney disease liver disease. The normal range is 6.0 to 8.3 gm/dL. Anything below/above considered abnormal. Higher results may be due to chronic inflammation, multiple myeloma, or Waldenstrom's disease. Lower results may be due to hemorrhage, burns, liver disease, malabsorption, malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome, or protein-losing enteropathy.
Ketones
This test is done if the patient has type 1 diabetes, pregnancy, nausea/vomiting, pneumonia, heart attack, or stroke. It is abnormal when the test is positive.
Mucous
This test checks the function of the kidneys or if there are any diseases in the urinary tract. The normal result is the pH to be 4.6-6.0. Anything different would be abnormal. If the patient recieves abnormal results then there is an infection present.
Occult Blood
The necessary specimen is the feces. This test detects the blood in the digestive tract. A normal test result is negative and means that there is no blood in the stool. Abnormal results may be caused by anything that causes bleeding in the stomach or intestinal tract including colon cancer, GI infections, infammatory bowel disease, and gastritis.









Ph
This test is used to evauluate respiratory diseases and conditions that infect the lungs. It helps determine the effectivness of oxygen therapy. Normal results include: Partial pressure of oxygen: 75-100mmHg
Partial pressure of CO2: 38-42mmHg
Arterial blood pH of: 7.38-7.42
Oxygen Saturation: 94-100%
Bicarbonate: 22-28mEg/L
Abnormal results may be due to lung, kidney, or metabloic diseases. Head or neck injuries that affect breathing can also lead to abnormal results.

Protein
This test is often done to diagnose nutritional problems., kidney and liver disease. The normal range is 6.0-8.3gm/dL. Results may be higher due to a chronic imflammation/ infection, multiple myeloma, and waldenstroms disease. Results may be lower due to hemorrhaging, burns, or liver disease.

Specific Gravity
This test evaluates your body's water balance
and urine concentration. The normal values are
1.000-1.030. An increased urine specific gravity may be due to Addison's disease, dehydration, diarrhea, and shock. A decrease may be due to excessive fluid intake, diabetes, kidney failure, and renal tubercular necrosis.
Stool Culture
This test finds the cause of symptoms
includingsevere or bloody diarrhea, increased amount of gas, nausea, vomitting, bloating, and abdominal pain. There are no abnormal bacteria or other germs in this sample.
Common laboratory
tests with other necessary specimens
hCG
The necessary specimen for an hCG test can be blood or urine.
This test will be used on pregnant women. It measures the exact age of the fetus. Normal results include hCG levels rising during the first trimester and then slightly declines. High rates may be caused by more than one fetus, ovarian cancer, or testicular cancer in men. Low rates may be caused by fetal death, incomplete miscarriage, and threatend spontaneous abortion.
Flu Tests
The necessary specimen is a throat and/or nasal swab. This test helps differentiate between influenza A and B. Adults and children: Negative (less than a 4-fold increase in serum antibody titer). If a postive result occurs, you may have influenza.


Pap Smear
The necessary specimen for a pap smear is cells. The pap smear is a screening test for cervical cancer. A normal result means there are no abnormal cells present. Abnormal results mean that cells changes were found on the cervix. When a pap smear shows abnormal changes, further testing and a follow up is needed.
By: Amy Kotrla, Alexis Colorado, & Ariel Raybon
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