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Beyond Lean UX

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Matthew Hodgson

on 9 February 2017

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Transcript of Beyond Lean UX

Needs at scale:
Transparency
Shared, coordinated end-goal
Collaboration between teams
Ownership of the product by the Teams
Shared UX, UI and architecture patterns between teams
Continued hypothesis/test by the Team
Product leadership to play a part in governance
There is a User Story whose competencies span a number of skill sets. Rather than 'Waterfall' the tasks, Pairing occurs throughout the whole delivery.
Actions (UX + Dev):
Discuss the Story's scope (15 min)
Sketch a solution together (15 min)
Dev find a solution to deliver the interaction design (1 hour)
Meet to discuss and iterate the sketch (30 min)
Agree on development actions
Identify UX assumptions
Code the solution
Pair on unit and functional testing
UX departs to assess inclusive design issues (e.g. accessibility, usability)
Meet to discuss bugs, defects (30 min)
Pair on fixes
Use it when:
UX and Dev skills are needed to delivery a Story
Dev and Test skills (particularly the later) are critical to avoid failure of critical functionality

Don't use it for:
Getting two people with the same skills to work on the same problem (i.e. two devs)
Working software got better feedback than wireframes
Matthew Hodgson
VP Enterprise Agile Coaching & Digital Transformation
t @magia3e
w www.zenexmachina
f facebook.com/zenexmachina
FIN
Customer Development Model
- Steve Blank
Lean UX
- Jeff Gothelf
Lean Startup
- Eric Ries
learn
build
measure
Beyond Lean UX
Sequential design/build
Waterfall Development
analysis
design
build
test
deploy
wireframes
requirements
specifications
business rules
workflow
user research
personas
business needs
user needs
system needs
develop
code
integrate
functional
integration
performance
usability
accessibility
production
rework
A Sprint Ahead
Sequential ux/build/test
rework
rework
design
build
usability
test
design
build
design
build
Deseree Sy (2007) Adapting usability investigations for agile user-centred design. Journal of Usability Studies, 2, 3, May. 112-132
... staggered Sprints is still just Waterfall
Sprint 0
Sprint 1
Sprint 2
Sprint 3
Sprint 4
Prasad
Sprint 3
Sprint 1
why have developers do
ux stuff??
core philosophy Lean UX:
UX is a capability, not a role
build shared knowledge of user and product needs thru a shared experience
Sprint 2
Whole program at Backlog Refinement
Collaborate
Ask questions
Engage and interact
via teleconference
4 locations
30 participants
...and they
loved
it!
Team started to tell stories
is that nav menu even possible?
of course it is fool!
let's check
some
options
conclusions
Tool helped prototype and wireframe
Tool resulted in UX designer working in isolation
Lean UX rules broken:
Collaboration - build shared understanding
Design turned into deliverables mode
Treatment:
More sketching, less wireframing/prototyping
Cross-functional pairing pattern
Focus of Stories always MVP (working software)
Dueling pistols
Quantum entanglement
Lean UX rules broken:
Collaboration - build shared understanding
Genius master of design
Design only came from the UX guy
Only worked 'a Sprint ahead', not with the team to produce MVP
Team didn't participate/collaborate in design
Knowledge of design and users only explicit (documented)
Treatment:
No 'UX' Stories - its all about working software to people!
Pragmatic (Proto) Personas
Whole team participation in stakeholder UX workshops
Whole team contributed to design in the same Sprint
Sprint 4
Annotated wireframes shared in the Cloud
Sought feedback from the others
(Lean) Waste: Non-functional prototype output that we'd have to throw away
Sprint 5
From wireframes to very rough sketches
Placeholder for a conversation with other about functionality and interaction design
Making Enterprise Agility and Scrum more User-Centred
Rule #1: Don't Waterfall your Sprints
Mike Cohn
"If you are treating your User Stories as miniature specification documents, stop. Start instead thinking about each as a promise to have a conversation."
Jeff Gothelf
"works best as a transition [from Waterfall]. It is not where you want your team to end up ...the entire team us never working on the same thing at the same time ... you don't build shared understanding, so you end up relying heavily on documentation and handoffs for collaboration."
inclusive design
as DOD

sketching
hypothesis driven development
discovery as a team sport
leveraging
Lean UX

collaborative work
anti-pattern
usability
test
usability
test
Brisbane
Sydney
Canberra
Melbourne
ZXM's
Definition of Done
for Agile Teams
Based on Peter Morville's UX Honeycomb Model
Potentially shippable increments are user-centred
Aligns technical product needs with end-user needs
Source: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/the-myth-of-the-genius-designer/
I love UX!
Nielsen, J (2007) The Myth of the Genius Designer
empathy maps
pragmatic personas
writing hypotheses
SAFe Epic value statement template
Source: http://www.scaledagileframework.com/epic/
Source: Gothelf, J (2013) Lean UX
Anti-pattern:
Genius Designer
Anti-pattern: Utility Belt
Agile principles broken:
People and interactions over process and tools
Solving problems
over delivering solutions

Started 'owning' the whole product solution
Backlog Refinement:
Build knowledge over refining 'requirements'
Engage and collaborate over upfront design
Define hypotheses and describe expectations
Agree on upcoming MVPs over 'design spikes'
the customer's
journey

Sprint 6
From UI experience to whole of product experience
UX Story Mapping:
Portfolio, program and team members
External users
Web Team (governance body)
Pattern: Quantum
Entanglement
Use it when:
Non-collocated teams

Trigger:
When face-to-face communication would normally occur

Actions:
Use Google Hangouts by default
When video degrades, reduce video quality
When video isn't an option, move to voice
When voice doesn't work (in group mode), move to chat
When chat doesn't work, pick up the phone
Pattern: Dueling Pistols
There is a usability hypothesis to test and people available to test it on. Get fast feedback and get the information back to the team.
Actions (UX + Dev):
Update the UI on a laptop/tablet
List the outcomes the person needs to achieve on paper
Grab a rig
Explain to the person the outcomes
Start filming
Go away for 20 minutes
Play back the video footage
Get the person to talk about what they were doing and what they expected to happen
Timebox feedback to 20 minutes
Return to the team and call a "Campfire"
Use it when:
It's time to test a usability / interaction design hypothesis

Don't use it for:
Getting feedback on large chunks of interaction design
Getting feedback on aesthetics / artwork
Pattern: 20/20
Whole Scrum Team felt they were missing:
The context of use
The bigger picture
Where were the biggest pain points
Where were the biggest wins to be had
Story's backbone
User's tasks
User Stories
Pain points
Touch points
Satisfaction levels
4 remote locations
Formal VCU facility
Facilitator in each locale
Sprint 7
Team started to use Web Monkey Surveys
Some hypotheses needed confirming
Ideas about problem spaces needed elaboration
Wanted wider sample of people
Implemented in Sprint 7
Collected data til Sprint 8
Analysed and implemented the data Sprint 9
Feedback on the tactical use to Web Team (governance body)
Sprint 8
Data collection too slow
Started widening hypotheses to User Stories
Started applying Toyota Kata to User knowledge
Hypotheses:
Data quality is low because questions have too much jargon, people don't understand question
Data quality is low because there's no proper field-level validation
Iterated:
plan-English form

Measured:
> 5% increase completion rate
2/5 to 4/5 increase in data quality compared with existing baseline
Result:
plain-English improved data quality
Next experiment:
Simplify inline help text
scaling Lean UX
Team realised we'd started to move from UX to CX
Feedback/data to portfolio for new investment opportunities
Large-Scale Scrum (LeSS)
Issues for using LeSS in our context
Distinct but related products
No common Product Backlog
No single Product Owner
Executive 'project' governance
Scaled Agile Framework
Program Portfolio Mgmt
Solution
Management
Solution Knowledge
Repository
Product
Manager
Development Team(s)
Develop investment hypotheses
If we improve plain-English use then we'll all make fewer data handling errors
What's the current use of plain-English?
Manage the data that comes back
Serve as knowledge broker between layers
Maintain integrity of hypotheses verification
Give the problem (hypothesis) to the team
What tactical elements does the team need to test their hypothesis? Standards? Patterns? Tools?
Form traceability between the tactical hypothesis, investment hypothesis and the Scrum Team's solution
Develop tactics to support hypothesis testing
What's the current use of plain-English?
If we improve the spread of it then we'll see data improve
Develop solution hypotheses
Product Owner(s)
Start to collect data
Implement the solution
Assess data
Do we have enough data to support or refute our hypothesis?
Are the tactical elements supporting us?
Assess solution hypotheses
When we improved the spread of plain-English did we see data quality improve?
Feedback to Product Owner, Product Manager
Next solution hypotheses
Assess tactical hypotheses
Did the tactics help the solution hypothesis?
If not, we need new tactics
Next tactical hypotheses
Assess investment hypotheses
Did the investment bring what we thought?
If not, we need new to change our investment
Next investment hypotheses
Benefits of LeSS:
Simple
Shared planning, aims, goals
Based on Scrum
Faster decision-making regarding hypotheses
Bring the problem, not the solution, to the team
Issues with Lean UX in SAFe
We only had 3 teams (not 5-12)
Potential longer feedback loops from multiple layers of governance

Issues from our context:
Who decides on the solution(s)?
Benefits of SAFe
Stronger alignment with existing governance context
Stronger alignment of MVP hypotheses with portfolio investment context
Greater potential for tactical support from program-layer
Showcase product
Demonstrate actual use by people
Demonstrate outcome of investment in team knowledge
Investing in team knowledge means investing in smarter delivery
Enterprise UX patterns emerge
Enterprise architectural patterns emerge
Improved reuse
Less waste in delivery of things people didn't want
Stronger ownership of product by team
Devops culture emerge
Stronger knowledge of users meant smarter decisions
Sprint 14
Centralise or decentralise the decision and action?
Choice of branding and visual aesthetic
Developing a common interaction design
Using responsive design (device agnostic solutions)
Understanding a problem facing users
Developing a solution to share for the suite of products
Developing a solution for a specific part of a form
Decision
Frequent?
Time-critical
Economies
of scale?
Total
Y=2 N=0
Y=2 N=0
Y=2 N=0
0-3 Centralise
4-6 Decentralise
UX work doesn't need to be a Sprint ahead
User discovery can easily occur as Backlog Refinement
Review data and knowledge of users as part of inspecting the Increment at Sprint Review
Sketching was faster than wireframing as a way to collaborate about a solution hypothesis
Sprint Plan is just a hypothesis
At scale, UX is better placed enabling teams to rapidly delivering and testing MVP over dictating requirements that are untested hypotheses
Expand hypothesis to drive learning within the team and across scale boundaries to improve customer experience across the enterprise
what did I learn?
Where in the Sprint do you do your UX?
What about user research and Sprint 0?
How did you get design through the approval process?
You can proceed after we approve it
Waterfall Governance
3 projects. 3 teams.
6 months.
One program.
Iterative
Incremental
Waterfall
Scrum-fall
Scrum Team
Only 1-2 dedicated resources
Only 1-2 people working at once
Web area design solution
Web team write User Stories as requirements
Dev team build
No Increment at the end of the Sprint
Cross functional team
Included UX
Vendor not internal team
Engaged through "Scrum as a contract"
defining
MVP

https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2011/03/lean-ux-getting-out-of-the-deliverables-business/
Gothelf, J (2011) Lean UX: Getting Out Of The Deliverables Business
Pick 1-2 core user flows
Just the 'design' part of your process
concept
prototype
validate
internally
test
externally
learn from user behaviour
iterate
paper
clickable wireframes
high-fi Axure
working software
usability
testing
declare
assumptions
create
MVP
run an
experiment
feedback and
research
Sprint 1
But we're doing Scrum
why should I care about Lean UX?
Lean UX foundations
design
thinking
agile
manifesto
lean start-up
experimentation
Jeff Gothelf
"In Lean UX, the ultimate goal is improved outcomes [to users], hence, anything that doesn’t contribute to that is considered waste and should be removed from the team’s process ... [because] Team resources are limited. The more waste the team can eliminate, the faster they can move" (p27)
Sprint 2
Visualise dependencies
Plan the program increment
Plan the program increment
Visibility of dependencies in end-to-end customer experience (CX)
Web self-service
Call-centre
Product support
program's business change manager
another team's PM
business SME
executive sponsor
business SME
team BA

UX/UI Style Guide from Enterprise's Web Team as Program's Style Guide
enterprise
Lean UX

Where in the Sprint do you do your UX?
What about user research and Sprint 0?
How did you get design through the approval process?
collaboration was high

our product was so awesomely usable!
pain points gave us best insights for product development
pain points gave us best insights for product development
Full transcript