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Transcript of Jean Piaget
An organised pattern of thought or behaviour.
A mental structure of preconceived ideas.
Ex. A Horse vs. Cow Accommodation: the process of changing internal mental structures to provide consistency with external reality. It occurs when existing schemas or operations must be modified or when new schemas are created to account for a new experience. Piaget believed all children pass through these phases to advance to the next level of cognitive development. Cognitive Development 1896-1980 - Was employed at Binet Institute in the 1920's to develop french versions of questions on English intelligence tests.
- He became intrigued with the reasons children gave for their wrong answers on "logical thinking" questions.
-Before Piaget, children were simply viewed as less competent thinkers. Assimilation: Occurs when a child perceives new objects or events in terms of existing schemas or operations. Equilibrium: Involves both assimilation and accommodation. When external reality does not match with the logical internal mental structures, equilibration occurs as an effort to bring balance between assimilation and accommodation as the person adapts to more sophisticated internal mental structures. Human beings continually attempt to make sense of the world around them by assimilating new information into pre-existing mental schemes and accommodating thought processes as necessary. Case Study Angie sees her own snapshot in a photo album for the first time. Her father asks her, "Who is that, Angie?" She points to the little girl in the picture and replies, "It is a baby, Daddy." She cannot identify herself. The father points out that the picture is of her. He tells her, "Yes Angie. That is a baby, and that baby is you." He then explains how pictures are taken to capture moments. After extensive observations of infants and toddlers, especially his own three children, Piaget described the sensorimotor stage as a series of six substages:
In the first month of life, infants’ behaviors reflect innate reflexes—automatic responses to particular stimuli.
Ex. Sucking/Grabbing *Many of these inborn reflexes are designed to keep the infant alive.
Primary Circular Reactions:
Ex. Sucking a thumb. The child does not intentionally coordinate putting his thumb in his mouth and sucking. By chance, when a child's hand comes in contact with the mouth sucking will occur. Getting a pleasurable sensation from this behavior, the child will attempt to recreate the behavior Secondary Circular Reactions:
Infants in this substage seem fascinated by the effects of their actions, although at this point they are not necessarily making a conscious connection between the particular things they do and the resulting consequences.
Ex. an infant may pick up and then drop a favorite stuffed animal; each time his caregiver gives the animal back to him, he may drop it again and yet fret that he no longer has it.
Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions:
After repeatedly observing that certain actions lead to certain consequences, infants gradually acquire knowledge of cause-effect relationships. They behave in ways that they know will bring about desired results.
Tertiary Circular Reactions:
Beginning sometime around their first birthday, infants show increasing flexibility and creativity in their behaviors, and their experimentation with objects often leads to new outcomes.
They may “experiment” with objects in their minds, first predicting what
will happen if they do something to an object, then transforming their plans into action. To some degree, mental prediction and planning replace overt trial-and-error as growing toddlers experiment and attempt to solve problems. In Piaget’s view, this stage begins at
birth and continues until about age 2. Preoperational Stage Sensorimotor Stage Ages 2 - 7 years Children in this stage can mentally represent events and objects, and engage in symbolic play. Their thoughts and communications are typically egocentric (i.e. about themselves). Egocentrism refers to the child's inability to see a situation from another person's point of view. Concrete Operational Stage The child is now mature enough to use logical thought or operations (i.e. rules) but can only apply logic to physical objects (hence concrete operational)
Ex. if you take two pieces of string that are the same length and scrunch one up, a child will reply that the scrunched one is shorter, if conservation hasn't yet been reached. Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child's cognitive development, because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought. Ages 7 - 11 years Formal Operational Stage Ages 11 years - Adulthood At this stage the child begins to manipulate ideas in their head, without any dependence on concrete manipulation. He or She can do mathematical calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome of particular actions. Born on August 9, 1896, in Switzerland, the son of a historian.
Much of Piaget's childhood was influenced by what he saw in his father, a man intensely dedicated to his studies and work.
Because of this, at an early age Piaget began passing up recreation for studying, particularly the study of the natural sciences. Questions Piaget's Theory
Today Jean Piaget developed his methods of understanding children by directly observing them while they were working, He also analyzed their behavior.
Piaget’s theories have had a major impact on the theory and practice of education. The theories focused attention on the idea of developmentally appropriate education—an education with environments, curriculum, materials, and instruction that are suitable for students in terms of their physical and cognitive abilities and their social and emotional needs. In addition, several major approaches to curriculum and instruction are explicitly based on Piagetian theory and this theory has been influential in constructivist models of learning,