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What are the Roles of Local and State Public Health Agencies

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Sydney Rosenthal

on 26 April 2014

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Transcript of What are the Roles of Local and State Public Health Agencies

Track and investigate health problems and hazards in the community
Prepare for and respond to public health emergencies
Develop, apply, and enforce policies and regulations to improve health
Lead efforts to mobilize communities around important health issues
Link people to health services
Achieve excellence in public health practice through trained workforce, evaluation, and evidence based programs.



Recording and analysis of health data
Health education and information
Supervision and Regulation
Administration of personal health services
Operation of health facilities
Coordination of activities and resources
District and County Operations
and Vital Records
Provides a variety of services across the state at a county and local level that support the improvement and continuation of healthy living in Georgia
District and County Operations
Vital Records
Health Promotions
and Health Protection
Maternal and Child Health
Federal Title V Maternal and Child Health Block Grant
Nutrition program for mothers and children that supports low-income families
Disease Prevention and Healthy Living Promotion
Healthy living programs
Disease prevention and treatment programs
Health Promotions
Health Protection
What are the Roles of Local and State Public Health Agencies?
Lauren Dean, Taylor Kennedy, Colin Brooks, Kathleen LaPorte, Morgan Wright, and Sydney Rosenthal

HPAM 3600
April 21st, 2014

What are Local Public Health Agencies?
Role of Local Public Health Agencies
Services that Local Public Health Agencies Provide
What are the Roles of State Public Health Agencies?
Economic Implications
Health economics
Utilized to analyze policies
Ex: Sin taxes
Analyze effectiveness of programs
Determine which programs should have priority
Comparing two or more interventions/programs: cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and cost-utility analyses
Surveillance of disease enables cost of disease info to be compiled
Helps with local and state economies (more than 2,500 local departments)
Some jobs are directly related to managing funds, auditing, etc…
Collaboration between local and state organizations is essential to economic growth
Job Creation
Local public health departments obtain firsthand information about local health needs and are responsible for providing its community with direct health related services.
What Services are Provided by State Public Health Agencies?
They build programs based on the needs of people in their community and provide the necessary facilities to carry out specific health responsibilities and services.
Women Infants and Children
Provides nutrition education and supplemental foods to low income families (over 30 years of this program)
Who is qualified?
Infants and Children age 1 to 5 years (including foster children)
Pregnant Women
Breastfeeding Mothers (up to 1 year)
Postpartum Women (up to 6 months)
These programs must be flexible and subject to change according to the new health problems that may arise within a community.
State Public Health Agencies typically play a role in managing the activities of local health departments.
These agencies are also responsible for implementing certain programs within the services provided.
Vital statistics, sanitation, communicable disease control, lab services, accident prevention, mental health and health education.
These are known as
"desirable minimum functions"
of local public health agencies.
Federal Fiscal Budget
Disease Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Data Collection
Laboratory Services
Preparedness and Response to Public Health Emergencies
Population-Based Primary Prevention
Health Care Services
Regulation of Health Care Providers
Environmental Health
Administration of Federal Public Health Programs
283,710 participants
$307 million contributed to the state's economy
18 health districts
172 health departments
20 community health centers
6 hospitals
3 military bases
2 Division of Family and Children Services (DFACS) offices
1,400 authorized vendors (WIC food delivery system)
Redeem approximately 1 million vouchers/month

What do Local Public Health Agencies Deal With?
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
Shift from infectious disease -> chronic disease
Disease prevention costs money up front, but saves money in the long run
Asthma Control Program
Blood Pressure Control Program
Diabetes Control/Prevention Program
Tobacco Use Prevention
$2,026,075
References
1. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. (2013). State Public Health. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials web site: http://www.astho.org/Public-Policy/2013-Advocacy-Materials/2013-Hill-Day-State-Public-Health-Final/2013/

2. Fuller, T. Georgia Department of Public Health, (2013).Breastfeeding Support. Retrieved from website: http://dph.georgia.gov/breastfeeding-support

3. Gann, Carrie. (2014). Tobacco Banned at Georgia Colleges. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from Georgia Department of Public Health web site: http://dph.georgia.gov/blog/2014-03-24/tobacco-banned-georgia-colleges

4. Georgia Department of Human Resources. (2005). Georgia’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Plan: To Prevent and Control Obesity and Chronic Diseases in Georgia. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from Georgia Department of Public Health web site: http://dph.georgia.gov/sites/dph.georgia.gov/files/WIC_Resources/Nutrition_Unit/Publications/NutritionandPhysicalActivityPlanFINAL.pdf

5. Georgia Department of Public Health. (2014). Georgia Tobacco-Free Colleges & Universities Tool Kit. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from Georgia Department of Public Health web site: http://dph.georgia.gov/sites/dph.georgia.gov/files/related_files/site_page/Tobacco%20Free%20Colleges%20and%20Universities%20Tool%20kit%20Feb%202014%20DPH%20Georgia.pdf

6. Georgia Department of Public Health. (2014). Georgia WIC Procedures Manual & State Plan. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from Georgia Department of Public Health web site: http://dph.georgia.gov/sites/dph.georgia.gov/files/WIC_Resources/Policy/Forms/2014_ALL_GeorgiaWICProcedure%20Manual_Final.pdf

7. Local Health Department. Services and Responsibilities. (1950). American Journal of Public Health, 40, 67-72.

8. Pestronk, R. (2014). The Role of Local Health Departments. Retrieved April 16, 2014, from National Association of County and City Health Officials website: http://www.naccho.org

9. Salinsky, E. (2010). Governmental public health: An overview of state and local public health agencies. Informally published manuscript, The George Washington University, Washington DC, Retrieved from http://www.nhpf.org/library/background-papers/BP77_GovPublicHealth_08-18-2010.pdf

10. Tietelbaum, Joel B. and Wilensky, Sara E. (2013). Essentials of Health Policy and Law, 2nd edition.Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett.


2013 GA State Department of Public Health
The Georgia Department of Public Health
“The Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) is the lead agency in preventing disease, injury and disability; promoting health and well-being; and preparing for and responding to disasters from a health perspective.”
--GPH website

159 county health departments
18 public health districts
GPH Primary Programs
District and County Operations
Vital Records
Health Promotion
Health Protection
The Georgia Department of Public Health is an example of a state level health agency that operates under both state and federal regulations. The purpose of this agency is to promote, maintain, and address the health of Georgia citizens across the state.
Birth certificates, death certificates, marriage license, confirmation of divorce
Public health records about the state of Georgia
OASIS—public access online health records
PHIP—per request online health records

Immunization, Emergency Preparedness, Environmental Health, Emergency healthcare Services, Epidemiology, and Injury Prevention

WIC Expenditures

Social Implications: Target-Breastfeeding
Social implications focuses a lot on education and the different services/programs local and state public health agencies provide to the community mainly focused on women and children. (WIC)
In the US most mothers of young children work outside the home.
Statistics
70% of employed mothers of young children work full-time.
1/3 work within 3 months after going via labor.
2/3 are employed by the time the child is 6 months old.
Afr.American and Hispanic women are more likely to return back to work earlier due to low-income which makes breastfeeding challenging.
Social Implications of breastfeeding: Support & Mission
The mission of local and state public health agencies is to reach out to the communities in efforts of helping, educating, and bettering the community as a whole.
The Georgia Department of Public Health is committed in supporting breastfeeding mothers and babies through its lactation support policy (DPH).
In addition, the GPH covers many implications, and our group surfaces WIC and the range of services it provides.
No matter race, religion, or SES, peer support is cost effective and individually tailored to promote and support this act.
Studies have shown that women's social networking have shown positive correlation on their health related decisions.
Peer support groups have encouraged and supported pregnant women/breastfeeding mothers.
Social Implications: Facts
Two of the most accredited peer support groups are La Leche League International and the USDA (WIC) program.
Studies have shown peer support is a solid foundation in promoting breastfeeding among:
Middle-income women, Low-income Latinos, Low-income Afr. Am women, women with uncertain breastfeeding goals, and women intending to breastfeed.
Maternal education is the most effective technique for increasing breastfeeding.
Scientific research has shown that breastfeeding is the superior method of infant feeding/nutrition.
Benefits include nutritionally complete food fit for the baby, increased intelligent development, and fewer respiratory problems (DPH).
In conclusion, when relating to social implications, breastfeeding benefits the mother and family as well as the society
• Differs in every state based on the structure of the state government
• Governor is typically head of executive branch and sets sate policy, although not all states give the governor this much power
• State governments cannot regulate all aspects of healthcare
• Use state agencies to help shape and implement policy
• Most states must keep balanced budgets which restricts what policies they make and what programs they can fund
State Level Policy Making
• Practiced from 2005-2015
• Created by Governor Perdue and uses multiple states agencies, including the DPH to make Georgians healthier
• Goal of this policy: “Remember, Be Active, Get Checked, Be Smoke Free, Eat Healthy and Be Positive” -Governor Perdue
• Detailed program that discusses the health concerns of Georgians, the statewide plan to take action, program implementation, how the program will be sustained throughout communities, and the long term objectives

Georgia's Nutrition and Physical Activity Plan
• Policy just created that bans tobacco usage at all Georgia public colleges beginning October 1, 2014
• Policy aims to promote healthy behavior among college campuses
• One of the goals of the policy set by Governor Perdue and the policy he set to promote Georgians health was to be smoke free
• Tool Kit created by the DPH and the CDC on how to implement this new policy
o Explains how to create a campaign to educate people about the new policy on college campuses, what resources can be used to help implement policy and how to enforce it

Georgia Tobacco-Free Colleges and Universities Policy
• “The mission of WIC is to provide policy direction and technical assistance to ensure continuity in program administration, operations, and compliance with program regulations, policies and procedures” -WIC Manual
• To help implement the WIC program and policies, DPH created a manual with the statewide plan
• Another example of the general policy to promote the health of Georgians and how programs are created and implemented to carry out this state policy

WIC Program
How are State Public Health Agencies Funded?
State health agencies rely on a mix of federal grant funds, state general funds, fees and fines collected from the public, and other sources.
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Full transcript