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Energy 3: Cellular Energetic Practice
Transcript of Energy 3: Cellular Energetic Practice
Enzymes are proteins.
Ex: amylase, protease, lipase... etc. etc.
How do they do it?
Enzymes interact with reactants ("
Cause breaking/formation of particular atomic bonds to be more energetically favorable.
This work is localized to an area of the enzyme called the "
The shape of the active site of an enzyme is shape-specific for a particular substrate.
The binding of a substrate to the active site induces the necessary conformational change of the enzyme to catalyze the reaction.
The active site is localized to a small area of the enzyme
Involved in minimizing mechanical stress on DNA during replication.
Makes a temporary cut in the helix.
: 2 polypeptide chains.
: DNA Double-Helix
: Active site.
Attaches carbon dioxide to sugar precursor molecules in photosynthesis.
50% of all protein found in a
Most enzymes require accessory compounds many of which you are familiar with as ("
") or metal ions (aka "
") in order to be functional.
Magnesium ion (
) associated with rubisco's active site.
A manganese ion (
) is visible in the topoisomerase active site.
Evolution plays a central role in enzyme structure and function.
Various studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of evolution on enzymes.
analysis of enzyme genes (sequence comparison).
Artificial selection of enzyme activity in laboratory settings.
Ethnographic/Demographic studies of enzyme genotypes and enzymatically determined phenotypes.
Variation + Natural Selection = Adaptation
Enzymatic function can be stimulated or inhibited by factors in the cell.
A molecule other than the substrate binds to the active site.
Regulation is accomplished without occupying the active site.
Stimulate or inhibit enzyme activity by causing a conformational change in the enzyme.
Binding of an activator molecule can stabilize the enzyme in an active conformation.
Binding of an inhibitor molecule can stabilize the enzyme in an inactive conformation.
Binding of a substrate molecule to on active subunit of an enzyme can also trigger stabilization of the active conformation in all subunits ("
A common nomenclature suffix for enzymes.
prefix: usually refers to enzyme's substrate
Localization of specific enzymes (and the reactions they mediate) within compartments of the cell allow for more control over when and where particular metabolic reactions occur in eukaryotes.
Like all proteins, enzyme structure (and therefore function) can be effected by the conditions of the enzyme's environment.
There are three major environmental conditions that effect enzyme structure and function
3. Concentration (enzyme, substrate, cofactors)
Many metabolites have regulatory effects on enzymes that catalyze the metabolic pathways that result in the production of those metabolites.
Make Sure You Can:
How do living systems control their metabolism?
How do living systems carry out a wide variety of specific chemical reactions?
Explain how enzymes function as catalysts.
Explain the induced fit model of enzyme function.
Provide examples of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in biological systems.
Explain the relationship between enzyme structure and function.
Explain the major modes of regulation of enzyme activity.