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Anatomy

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Adam Breidenbach

on 6 May 2013

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Transcript of Anatomy

Anatomy Definition: The scientific discipline that investigates the structure of body. Physiology Definition: the scientific discipline that deal with the processes or functions of living things. The six characteristics of life HOMEOSTASIS Definition: when the body is at its set point, or its equilibrium. At what level do we begin to study anatomy and physiology, how does with make up the whole? We begin to study anatomy on a chemical level, which is mostly interactions among atoms. Then we go to the Organelle, which is a cell that preforms one or more specific functions. Then there are cells, cells are the basic living units of all plants and animals. Tissue comes next, tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function plus the extracellular substances located between them. Then comes organs, organs are composed to two or more tissue types that together preform one or more common functions. Then an Organ system is just when a group of organs do a common fuctions or set of functions. Lastly comes Organisms, which are us or anything that is living. What does chemistry have to do with life and what chemical reactions happen in the body? Chemistry has everything to do with life, our body is composed of so many different types of chemicals, not to mention medications and such. Chemistry is the building blocks upon which we are all built. Some Chemical reactions that happen in the body are when we digest food, our body discomposes the food and takes its nutrition. Metabolism is another example of a chemical reaction in the body, it determines your fat intake. Life literally could not exist without Chemistry. They're also synthesis reactions that bring to things together to make more complex reactions, and decomposition reactions that act to make things less complex. Integumentary System The Functions of the Integumentary System are as follows: Protection: The skin protects against abrasion and ultraviolet light. Sensation: The integumentary system has sensory receptors. Vitamin D Production: When exposed to ultraviolet light the skin can produce vitamin D. Temperature Regulation: Body temperature can be regulated by blood flow and sweat glands. Excretion: smal amounts of waste products are lost through glands in the skin.
The divisions of the Integumentary System are: The hair, nails, and skin. The hair consists of the root, bulb and shaft, and has a muscle called the arrector pili which makes your hair stand on end. The nail is a thin plate consisting of layers of dead stratum corneum cells. The nail consists of the nail body, nail root, the cuticle, nail bed and nail matrix. The skin consists of three layers called the dermis, epidermis and hypodermis. The skin helps to regulate temperature via glands and protect the body. The Skeletal System Functions of the Skeletal System:
Bones Functions: Support: Bone holds up the soft tissues
of the body and keeps the bodies shape. Protection: Bones protect organs. Lever System: Muscles use bones to produce body movements. Mineral Storage: Bones can functions as a site for mineral storage. Blood Cell Formation: Bloods cells are produced in the marrow of bones. Cartilage Functions: Model for bone growth: Cartilage is abundant in the fetus a lays the model for bone growth. Smooth Joint Surfaces: Joins of bones are covered in cartilage which prevents bones from grinding. Support: Cartilage provides a firm yet flexible support.
Tendons and Ligaments Functions: Tendons or strong bands that attach muscle to bones. Ligaments are strong bands that attach bone to bone. As listed above, the three divisions of the Skeletal System are Bones, Cartilage, and Tendons and Ligaments. Skeletal System The Nervous System (And Senses) The Functions of the Nervous System are as Follows:
Sensory input: Sensory receptors monitor almost your whole body including senses.
Integration: The brain and spinal cord are the major organs for producing responses.
Homeostasis: The nervous system interprets and responds to changes in internal and external conditions.
Mental Activity: The brain is the center of mental activity, including consciousness, memory and thinking.
Control of skeletal muscles: Skeletal muscles normally contract only when stimulated by the nervous system.
The senses functions are rather self explanatory, the senses do what they are, for example: the sense of vision is used to see. The senses are: Olfaction, taste, vision, touch or feeling (including pain), Hearing and balance.
Divisions of the Nervous System: The Nervous System is divided into eight divisions. Central Nervous System (Consists of brain and spinal cord.) Peripheral Nervous System (consists of nerves and ganglia). Afferent Division (conducts action potentials from sensory receptors to the CNS.) Efferent Division (conducts action potentials from the CNS to effector organs.) The Efferent Division can further be divided into the motor nervous system and autonomic nervous system. The Motor Nervous System (which transmits action potentials from the CNS to skeletal muscles.) The Autonomic Nervous System (which transmits action potentials from the CNS to cardiac muscles.) The Autonomic Nervous system and be further divided into the Sympathetic Division (prepares person for physical activity) and the Parasympathetic Division (activates functions such as digestion.) The senses are not a division of the nervous system but rather an accessory organ. Endocrine System Functions of the Endocrine System: Endocrine System 1. Water Balance: the endocrine system regulates water balance by controlling the solute concentration of the blood. Uterine Contraction and Milk Release: The endocrine system regulates both of these actions. Metabolism and Tissue Maturation: The endocrine system regulate the rate of metabolism and influence the maturation of tissues. Ion Regulation: The endocrine system regulates sodium, potassium, and calcium ion concentrations in the blood. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Regulation: The endocrine regulates these actions to help prepare the body for physical activity. Blood Glucose Control: The Endocrine system regulates blood glucose levels. Immune System Regulation: The Endocrine system helps control the production of immune cells. Reproductive Functions Control: The endocrine system controls the development and the function of the reproductive systems in males and females. Cardiovascular System The Cardiovascular system is responsible for moving blood all throughout our body through vessels and veins and of course, all the blood movement is powered by the heart. Lets start out with Blood. Blood is responsible for transporting gasses and nutrients throughout the body. Oxygen enters the blood in the lungs and is carried to cells, Carbon dioxide produced by those cells, is carried in to the lungs from which is it expelled. The blood also transports regulatory molecules, many of the hormones and enzymes that regulate body processes are carried from one part of the bod to another within the blood. Blood also regulates blood pH and osmosis via buffers in the body. Blood also helps us maintain body temperature. Blood can be transported from the interior to the surface of the body where heat is released from the blood. Cells and chemicals of the blood constitute an important part of the immune system by protecting us against foreign substances. Blood also clots to form scabs so prevent massive blood loss from things like cuts and scratches.
The most important part of the cardiovascular system is the Heart. The heart is responsible for generating blood pressure through contractions which move blood through the veins. The heart also routs blood in which it separates the pulmonary and systemic circulation. The heart ensures on-way blood flow because the valves of the heart ensure blood and only flow one way. Last but not least the heart regulates blood supply. The heart changes the rate and force of contraction match blood delivery to the changing metabolic needs of the tissues. The last part of the Cardiovascular system are the Blood vessels and the Circulation of blood.
The first function of this part of the system is to carry blood throughout the body through vessels. Another function is to provide adequate nutrient and gas exchange between blood and essentially all the tissues of the body. Bloods vessels also transport hormones and molecules and components of the immune system all throughout the body. Lastly the peripheral circulatory system direct blood to tissues which creased blood flow is requires for homeostasis. The Lymphatic System and Immunity The Lymphatic system is a part of the body's defense system against microorganisms and other harmful substances.
The first of the Lymphatic Systems functions is Fluid Balance. About 30 liters of fluid pass from the blood capillaries into the intestinal spaces each day but only 27 L pass back. If the extra 3 L of interstitial fluid remained in the interstitial spaces, edema would result, causing tissue damage. But the 3 L of fluid enters the lymphatic capillaries were the fluid is called lymph, and it passed thought the lymphatic vessels to return to the blood. The lymphatic system also absorbs fats and other substances from the digestive tract. This function is called Fat Absorption. The last function of the Lymphatic System is defense. Microorganisms and other foreign substances are filtered from lymph by lymph nodes and from blood by the spleen.
Immunity is another part of the Lymphatic System. Immunity is the ability to resist damage from foreign substances. There are several different types of immunity such innate immunity, the body is born with the ability to recognize and rapidly destroy certain foreign substances, but the ability to destroy them does not improve each time the body is exposed to them. In adaptive immunity, the ability of the body to recognize and destroy certain foreign substances improves each time the body encounters the foreign substance. It's pretty awesome. Respiratory System The respiratory system consists of the nose, the nasal cavity, the pharynx, the larynx, the trachea, the bronchi, and the lungs. The upper respiratory tract refers to the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and associated structure; and the lower respiratory tract includes the larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
The respiratory system allows oxygen from the air to enter the body and carbon dioxide to leave the blood and enter the air. This is called Gas exchange and is the first function of the respiratory system. The respiratory system can also alter blood pH by changing blood carbon dioxide levels. The respiratory system is also responsible for voice production which is air movement past the vocal cords. The respiratory system also gives you the olfactory sense which is when airborne molecules are drawn into the nasal cavity. And lastly the respiratory system gives you innate immunity. The respiratory system provides protection against some microorganisms by preventing their entry into the body and by removing them from respiratory surfaces. Digestive System, Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temp Regulation. The functions of the digestive system are very easy. They are to take in food through the mouth and to break down food, which is done during the process of digestion.
The Digestive System consists of the digestive tract, a tube extending from the mouth to the anus which is where digestion and the break down of food takes place. Nutrition, Metabolism, and body Temperature Regulation: Nutrition is the process by which food is take into and used by the body, and it includes digestion, absorption, transport, and metabolism. Nutrition is also the study of food and drink requirements for normal body function.
Metabolism is the total of all the chemical changes that occur in the body. It consists of anabolism, the energy-requiring process by which small molecules are joined to form larger ones and catabolism, the energy-releasing process by which molecules are broken down into smaller ones.
Humans are warm-blooded animals meaning we can maintain a constant body temperature, even though the environmental temperature varies. Maintenance of a constant body temperature is every important to homeostasis. Most enzymes are very temperature-sensitive and function only within narrow temperature ranges. Environmental temperatures are too low for normal enzyme function. The heat produced by metabolism and muscle contraction helps maintain the body temperature at a steady, elevated level that is high enough for normal enzyme function. Excessively high temperatures can alter enzyme structure , regulation in the loss of enzymes function. Organization: The condition in which the parts of an organism have specif relationship to each other and the part interact to perform specific functions. Metabolism: The ability to use energy to perform vital functions, such as growth, movement and reproduction. Responsiveness: The ability of an organism to sense changes in the environment and make the adjustments that help to maintain its life. Growth: An increase in size of all or part of the organism. Differentiation: A change in cell structure and function from generalized to specialized. Reproduction: The formation of new cells or new organisms. Urinary System The Urinary System has four mains parts to it which are: The Kidneys, the Ureter, the Urinary Bladder and the Urethra.
The Major functions of the urinary system are performed by the Kidneys. The first of these functions is excretion. The Kidneys are the major excretory organs of the body because they remove most waste products, many of which are toxic, from the blood. The Kidneys also play an essential role in controlling blood volume by regulating the volume of urine produced. The Kidneys help to regulate the concentration of the major ions in the body fluids. the Kidneys also help regulate the pH of body fluids. The Kidneys participate in the regulation of erythrocyte production and, therefore, in controlling the concentration of erythrocytes in the blood. Lastly the Kidneys, along with the skin and the liver participate in the synthesis of vitamin D. The Reproductive System The Reproductive System is how we reproduce. The man and the woman both have different baby making parts. The males reproductive parts are the seminal vesicle, the ductus deferens, the prostate gland, the epididymis, the testes, and the penis. The parts of the female reproductive system are the mammary gland in breast, uterine tube, ovary, uterus, and vagina.
The males reproductive systems preforms the following functions: Production of sperm cells: Self explanatory. Sustaining and transfer of the sperm cells to the female: The duct system provides nutrients for the sex cells produced in the testes, provides an environment in which the sex cells mature, provides secretions that form most of volume of the semen transferred. Lastly the Production of male sex hormones. Hormones produced by the male reproductive system control the development not only of the reproductive system itself but also of the male body form.
The females reproductive system preforms the following functions: Production of female sex cells: The reproductive system produces females sex cells in the ovaries. Reception of sperm cells from the male. The female reproductive system includes structure that receive sperm cells from the male and transports the sperm cells to the site of fertilization. Nurturing the development of and providing nourishment for, the new individual. The female reproductive system nurtures the development of a new individual in the uterus. Lastly Production of female sex hormones. Hormones produced by the female reproductive system control the development of the reproductive system itself and of the female body form. Development is the process of growing from a fetus into an adult. This process involves many components, but literally your whole body develops into who you will be as an adult. The stages of development can be defined as the stages of life, which are as follows: 1. Germinal period, fertilization to 14 days. 2. The Embryo. 14 to 56 days after fertilization. 3. The Fetus. 56 days after fertilization to birth. 4. Neonate. Birth to 1 month after birth. 5. Infant. 1 month to 1 or 2 years after birth. 6. Child. 1 or 2 years old to puberty. 7. Adolescent. Teenage years from puberty to 20 years old. 8. Adult. 20 years old to death. Your body traits that you will see as you age and develop are due to your heredity, the genes you have that get passed down from your parents. Heredity effects everything about you, from the shape of your nose to how tall you will be to how you will age. The effects of aging can be seen all through out the body. As you age your heart rate slows down. Your bones tend to shrink in size making the more weak and you more prone to injuries. Memory becomes less efficient with age, it becomes harder and harder to remember things. As you age your urinary tract can become more prone to infection and you can get an enlarged prostate. As you age you also have to watch your diet more because your digestive tract will metabolize food slower. You will be more prone to constipation in a low-fiber diet. Basically getting old kind of sucks but is something that happens to everyone. Aging, Development and Heredity
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