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Forensic Science Handwriting, Forgery, Counterfeiting - D. Scott
Transcript of Forensic Science Handwriting, Forgery, Counterfeiting - D. Scott
Charles Lindbergh Case - 1930
One of the first cases when handwriting
analysis was used. This was a very high
profile case involving the kidnapping of
Handwriting analysis was not accepted as
creditable form of evidence until 1999 when
the U.S. Court of Appeals determined that it
could qualify as expert testimony.
12 Major Specific Details in Analyzing Handwriting
1. Line Quality - Do the letters flow or are they
erratic and shaky.
2. Spacing - the letters are equally spaced or
3. Size consistency - the ratio of height to
width is consistent or inconsistent.
4. Continuity - writing is continuous or are pen
5. Connecting Letters - capitals and lower case
letters are connected and continuous or are not
connected and continuous.
6. Lettering Complete - the letter begins and ends
on the page or part of the letter is missing.
7. Cursive and printed letters - letters are cursive,
printed, or both.
8. Pen pressure - equal or not when applied to
upward or downward strokes.
9. Slant - is the slant to the right or left or is
10. Line habits - text is on, above, or below
11. Fancy curls or loops - which letters have
special loops or curls.
12. Placement of i's and t's - where is the "i"
dotted and where is the "t" crossed.
A sample of suspect's writing is
known as an "exemplar".
History of Counterfeiting
Counterfeiting is one of the oldest crimes. In the Roman empire, people would mix different metals and cast them with gold or silver to make fake gold and silver coins.
During the American Revolution the British flooded the states with counterfeit money devaluing it so much it became worthless.
During the civil war, 1600 banks were responsible for printing and issuing money and produced over 7,000 forms of currency. It was estimated that about 1/3 of the money in the United States was counterfeit.
In 1862, a national currency was established, but it was still very easy to make counterfeit notes. So, in 1865 the Secret Service was established to combat the widespread counterfeiting problem.
In 1996 the BEP (Bureau of Engraving and Printing) started making some major changes to US currency.
The newest advances in protecting U.S. currency are:
1. Security Thread 4. Raised Printing
2. Portrait Watermark 5. Gold 100
3. Color Shifting Ink 6. Microprinting
Details of Money
It is composed of 75% cotton and 25% linen and made from 22lb stock paper. This is not sold commercially.
The largest note ever printed was the 100,000 bill (Woodrow Wilson) in 1934. Only used as a means of exchange between Federal Reserve Banks.
If you possess more than 50% of a currency note (cash) it is considered "good" money. 50% or less is not backed by the U.S. government.
Who is on the front of each of these denominations of currency?
1$ George Washington
5$ Abraham Lincoln
10$ Alexander Hamilton (non-president)
20$ Andrew Jackson
50$ Ulysses S. Grant
100$ Benjamin Franklin (non-president)
Between 16 and 21 he posed as an airline pilot, attorney, college professor, and pediatrician.
Cashed 2.5 million in fraudulent checks in every state and 26 foreign countries.
Arrested at the age of 21 in France. Served time in Sweden and again in the U.S.
After almost five years in the U.S., he served the rest of his sentence working for the FBI.
He worked for the FBI for 35 years.
Document Analysts - specially trained person who scientifically analyzes handwriting and other features in a document. Examines written notes and compares various handwriting traits.
Graphologist – person who studies the personality of the writer based on samples.
Forgery - When a material gain, such as money, accompanies a forgery, it is called fraudulence. Generally, the primary purpose of forging something is to profit from the fake or alteration.