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Shift of Educational Focus from Content to Learning Outcomes
Transcript of Shift of Educational Focus from Content to Learning Outcomes
1. Identification of the educational objectives of the subject/course.
OUTCOMES BASED/OUTCOMES FOCUSED EDUCATION
Outcomes based education (OBE) is a process that involves the restructuring of curriculum, assessment and reporting practices in education to reflect the achievement of high order learning and mastery rather than the accumulation of course credits” (Tucker, 2004). Thus the primary aim of OBE is to facilitate desired changes within the learners, by increasing knowledge, developing skills and/or positively influencing attitudes, values and judgment. OBE embodies the idea that the best way to learn is to first determine what needs to be achieved. Once the end goal (product or outcome) has been determined the strategies, processes, techniques, and other ways and means can be put into place to achieve the goal.
2. Listing of learning outcomes specified for each subject/course objective.
1. Immediate outcomes- competencies/skills acquired upon completion of a subject, a grade level, a segment of the program, or of the program itself.
2. Deferred outcomes- refer to the ability to apply cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills/competencies in various situations many years after completion of a subject; grade level or degree program.
Ironically, however, for centuries we succeeded in perpetuating the belief that education is a "pouring in" process wherein the teacher was the infallible giver of knowledge and the student was the passive recipient.
Education originated from the terms "educare" or "educere" which meant "to draw out".
3. Drafting outcomes assessment procedure.
The advent of technology caused a change of perspective in education, nationally and internationally. The teacher ceased to be the sole source of knowledge. With knowledge explosion, students are surrounded with various sources of facts and information accessible through user-friendly technology. The teacher has become a facilitator of knowledge who assists in the organization, interpretation and validation of acquired facts and information.
“Content Based Learning is a study of both language acquisition and subject matter. Instead of teaching language in isolation, the target language becomes the medium in which important information can be learned. Whenthe students are studying a content area of interest (i.e. snakes, the Holocaust ,immigration, etc), they are more intrinsically motivated to learn both the content and the language simultaneously. The students are actually able touse their new language. Content Based Learning is most appropriate at intermediate and advanced proficiency levels. ”Content based activities extend student vocabulary and knowledge, givingstudents words to use when they speak or write, extending vocabulary and speaking and writing skills. In other words, students learn new words with every activity, and create a base of words built on the activity.
Outcomes-Based Education: Matching Intentions with Accomplishment
It is student centered; it places the students at the center of the process by focusing on Student Learning Outcomes (SLO)
It is faculty driven; that is, it encourages faculty responsibility for teaching, assessing program outcomes and motivating participation from the students.
It is meaningful; that is, it provides data to guide the teacher in making valid and continuing improvement in instruction and assessment activities.
Content Based Learning Versus Outcomes Based Learning
(Source: Spady, 1994)
To implement outcomes-based education on the subject or course level, the following procedure is recommended:
Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives:
Cognitive- also called knowledge, refers to mental skills such as remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, synthesizing/creating.
Psychomotor- also referred to skills, includes manual or physical skills, which proceed from mental activities and range from simplest to the complex such as observing, imitating, practicing, adapting and innovating.
Affective- also known as attitude, refers to growth in feelings or emotions from the simplest behavior to the most complex such as receiving, responding, valuing, organizing and internalizing.
Two types of outcomes:
Learning Systems: Content Based versus Outcomes Based
(Source: Spady, 1994)
Presented by: Eña Lea Manalaysay
to: Dr. Emil B. Ferdinez
Assessment of Learning 1