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Kylie Nikole

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of Constructivism

By: Paige Eisengart, Cassandra Fuller,Marissa Hamborsky, Brooke Liptak, Adrienne Scurfield, Kylie Smith, and Samantha Walsh Constructivism Learners constructing their own knowledge. What is Constructivism: Jean Piaget-- Constructivism Theorists: Evolved in the 18th Century-- The History of Constructivism: Two Types of Constructivism-- Characteristics of Constructivism: Questions? The End. -Believed that humans learn through the construction of one logical structure after another. Focusing on the learner and their thinking, rather than focusing on the lesson. Learning is an active process that uses sensory input to construct meaning. Jerome Bruner-- -Believed that learning is an active process in which the learner forms new ideas based upon their current and past knowledge. Lev Vygotsky-- -Introduced the social aspect of learning. -Created and defined the "Zone of Proximal Learning." --This is when students solve problems beyond their actual development level but within their level of potential development. -Before Constructivism, Behaviorism ruled the education world. Giambattista Vico-- -coined the term "Constructivist" -During the 1930s and the 1940s, Constructivism was the leading perspective among public educators in the United States. In the 19th Century-- Not a "New" Idea-- -The ideas of constructivism can date back to the insights of Socrates, however, it really came to light when Piaget's theory of Intellectual Growth was released. -1. Cognitive Constructivism -2. Social Constructivism --these types are different in emphasis, however, they have common characteristics. Jonassen's Eight Characteristics (1994)-- -1. Constructivist learning environments provide multiple representations of reality. -2. Multiple representations avoid oversimplification and represent the complexity of the real world. -3. Constructivist learning environments emphasize knowledge construction inserted of knowledge reproduction. -4. Constructivist learning environments emphasize authentic tasks in a meaningful context rather than abstract instruction out of context. Continued.. Jonassen's Eight Characteristics (1994)-- -5. Constructivist learning environments provide learning environments such as real-world settings or case-based learning instead of predetermined sequences of instruction. -6. Constructivist learning environments encourage thoughtful reflection on experience. -7. Constructivist learning environments enable context- and content- dependent knowledge construction." -8. Constructivist learning environments support "collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation, not competition among learners for recognition." Types of Constructivism: Cognitive Constructivism-- -Based on Piaget's Theories -Two parts-- --Ages and Stages -Children learn information based upon their cognitive development and the experiences they have. Social Constructivism-- -Based on Vygotsky's Theories -Teacher plays a much more active role. -Emphasizes the importance of culture and social context. Constructivism--Pros and Cons: Pros-- -Free Flowing -Most memorable learning experiences -Comes from students own personal experiences and situations -Provides scaffolding -Group involvement -Allows students to draw their own personal conclusion and opinions Continued... Pros Continued- -Allows students to create their own knowledge -Students interact with each other -Student are always moving and active, not just sitting at a desk all day Cons- -Hard to relate to new subject if there is no prior knowledge -Some students may not have the ability to work well with other students or in groups -Teacher may have difficulty keeping control of the behavior and noise level of the classroom How Is Constructivism Different?: -Constructivism can incorporate a number of teacher practices, such as cooperative, collaborative, and inquiry-based learning. -In a constructivist classroom, students tend to work in groups, where in a tradition classroom they work alone. -In a constructivist classroom, curriculum is presented in top-down manner where in a traditional classroom, they favor bottom-up learning. -Constructivist curriculum is more student run on rather than teacher run. -Testing in a traditional classroom is mostly done by administration of a test, but in a constructivist classroom it is through what the student accomplishes in the classroom. What is a Constructivism Classroom Like? 1. Active-- -student creates their own understanding. -learning activities require the student's pull participation. -student reflect on and talk about the activities. 2. Reflective-- -teacher helps to create situations where the students feel safe questioning and reflecting on their own processes, either privately or in a group discussion. -teacher creatives activities that lead the students to reflect on their prior knowledge and experiences. 3. Collaborative-- -students learn about learning not only from themselves, but also from their peers. Continued... 4. Inquiry-Based-- -student use inquiry methods to ask questions, investigate a topic, and use a variety of resources to find solutions and answers. 5. Evolving-- -students compare information learned to prior knowledge that they have. -ideas that students come up with in the lesson may later be seen as invalid, incorrect, or insufficient to explain a new experience. Student's/Teacher's Role: Student-- -develop questions and identify issues -gather and analyze to create their own answers -become problem solvers -discuss ideas with teacher and other students -engage in experiences that challenge hypotheses and encourage discussion Continued... Teacher-- -encourage students to constantly assess how the activity is helping them to gain understanding -watching, listening, and asking questions -offer students options and choices in their work. -invite students to be involved in their learning Traditional Vs. Constructivism: Constructivist-- Traditional-- References: -Belenky, M.F., Clinchy, B.M., Goldberger, N.R., & Tarule, J.M. (1986). Women's ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books. -Bentley, A.F. & Dewey, J. (1949). Knowing and the known. Boston: Beacon Press. -Boomer, G. (1992). Negotiating the curriculum. In G. Boomer, N. Lester, C. Onore, & J. Cook (Eds.), (1992). Negotiating the curriculum: Educating for the 21st century (pp. 4-14). London: The Falmer Press. -Calkins, L. (1986). The art of teaching writing. Portsmith, NH: Heinemann. -Cruickshank, D., Jenkins, D. B., & Metcalf, K. K. (2012). The act of teaching. (6 ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. -Clark, D. (2010, September 26). Constructivism. Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/history/constructivism.html -Cognitive constructivist theories. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/cognitiv.htm -Chen, I. (2006, 08 17). An electronic textbook on instructional technology . Retrieved from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/social.htm -Murphy, E. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~emurphy/stemnet/cle3.html -Al-Huneidi, Ahmad M. & Schreurs, Jeanne. Constructivism Bases Blended Learning in Higher Education. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 7(1). Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.navigator-cup.passhe.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=db98bc96-03f3-4cb9-966a-53651ddbb84f%40sessionmgr11&vid=5&hid=1 -Roby, Teshia. (2009, September 13). Traditional Teaching [Video Clip]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch? feature=player_embedded&v=EQKcxnFUMxk -Bob17164. (2010, March 2). Northside School Botswana [Video Clip]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch? feature=player_embedded&v=DeoQnjH7sM4#!
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