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Lakes and Ponds Biome
Transcript of Lakes and Ponds Biome
Lakes and Ponds are defined by many factors such as there salinity, size, depth, and mixing. The key factor is that Lakes and Ponds unlike rivers and streams are lentic systems or systems that do not have much moving water. Also Lakes and Ponds do not have contact with the ocean.
Lakes and Ponds Biome
Lakes and Ponds are determined by their depth. A lake is deeper than three meters and a pond is shallower than three meters.
Mixing is an important cycle for Lakes and Ponds because it balances out the nutrient levels in the water.
Lakes are greater than one hectare (2.43 acres) while the surface area of a pond is less than one hectare.
Animals that are in Lakes and Ponds are suited to live in water with low salinity and different levels of other nutrients. Freshwater fish dominate most of the water along with macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, and phytoplankton.
Algae and many other types of underwater plants are in Lakes and Ponds. They are important because the take out the CO2 that the fish and other respiring organisms give off. Then they turn it into oxygen.
Lakes and Ponds are also known as the "Fresh Water Biome". For water to be considered fresh the salinity of the water must be 1% or below. To put that in context the Atlantic Ocean is around 3-5% salinity.
Lakes mix through thermal stratification. The warmer water is up in the topmost layer of water called the Epilimnion. The coldest water is down in the bottom called the hypolimnion. As the seasons change the water gets colder and the top water drops down to the hypolimnion and causes mixing. The water continually turns over through out the Fall and Spring.
Ponds are different then lakes when they mix. Ponds do not become thermally stratified and temperature does not determine mixing. Ponds are mostly mixed by the wind because of the depth of the ponds.
Interesting fact: Lakes and Ponds are sometimes incorrectly named. For example because of Walden Pond's size, depth, and mixing it should be considered a lake. However it is called a pond because when it was named the scientific method for determination was not prevalent.
Lakes and Ponds can be determined as Eutrophic, Mesotrophic, or Oligotrophic.
A Eutrophic lake has high levels of oxygen and has low clarity. The nutrient levels for a Eutrophic lake are very high.
An Oligotrophic Lake has high clarity with low nutrients and low oxygen. Different types of fish are suited to live in this lake.
A Mesotrophic Lake is somewhere i the middle of those two determinations. For example there may be high nutrients with a high clarity.
Lakes and Ponds face many environmental problems. Lakes and Pond are often exploited for their fresh water. Humans impact them by introducing invasive r-selected species that can change the dynamic of the water. Also humans affect nutrient levels because of the chemicals we used around Lakes and Ponds. Human beings also hurt these bodies of water by using them for recreation. For example in Walden Pond there may be nutrient problems because of how much visitors are peeing in the water.
BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/habitats/Lake>.
"The Freshwater Biome." The Freshwater Biome. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2013. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/freshwater.php>.
":::: What's It Like Where You Live? ::::." :::: What's It Like Where You Live? ::::. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. <http://www.mbgnet.net/fresh/lakes/>.
Zones of Lakes and Ponds
The Littoral zone is the top zone and is located by the shore. In this zone the sun heats up the water the most so it is home to many different kinds of organisms. This is where some algal mats are located which helps with production of oxygen.
The Limnetic zone is the uppermost layer of water not including the shore. It is the more open water of the lake or pond where the depth is greater. In this zone there is plankton and different species of fish.
The Profundal zone is mostly the hypolimnion. This is the coldest part of the water and has the densest water in this zone. Depending on the depth of the Lake or Pond very little sunlight reaches this zone.