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CHAPTER 7

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Lourdes Bayudan

on 19 August 2015

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Transcript of CHAPTER 7

CHAPTER 7
EDUCATIONAL REALISM
DISCIPLINISM AND RATIONALISM
NATURALISM

Realism
concerned with the actualities of life.
3 Groups:
• Humanistic or Verbal Realists
• Social Realists
• Social Realists

Humanistic or Verbal Realism
– both believe that the only material worth reading was classical literature.
• Humanistic
• Verbal Realists
believe that literature has to be studied for its own sake for its aesthetic value.
believe that classical literature has to studied not for its beauty but for the information and knowledge of the facts of the past so that knowledge could be used for the preparation for practical living.
Educational Aims of Verbal Realism
• Complete knowledge and understanding
• Juan Luis Vives
“Education should develop personality.”
• Francois Rabelais
• John Milton
“Aim of learning was the development of the whole man.”
“Education was to prepare for actual living.”
Agencies of Education and Contents Studies
• Home
• Public day school
• Academy
• University
from birth to age 6, child was to be taught by their mother.
age 7 the boy. (idea of Vives)
ages 12-21were the boy should give his entire education. A private secondary school (idea of Milton)
upper courses were taken.
Outstanding Contribution to Education
• Practical Education
SOCIAL REALISM
Social realist were members of aristocracy who aimed for education that would develop the gentleman and such an education could be best direct contact with the people under their social activities rather than through books.


AIMS OF EDUCATION
1. Pragmatic utilitarian
Michael Montaigne, a social realists, proposed a broad social education that would make a young aristocrat a man of the world, Travel according to him, would be most suitable so that the school had very little use. The private tutorial systems became popular among the nobility.
2. Social Relation
is another aim to prepare and train the aristocratic youth to have the right relationships with his fellowmen to achieve joyful living with them.
3.Decision Making
was also emphasized to train the aristocratic youth to make wise and practical judgement, proper decisions, and right choices.
AIMS OF EDUCATION
AGENCIES AND CONTENTS STUDIED
1. The Tutor
2. Academies
3. Ritterakademie
was advocated by Montaigne and was adopted by the nobility.
was established emphasizing mathematic, good manners, modern languages and military sciences as part of curriculum.
was established solely for the sons of the nobility under the influence of French court life.
METHOD OF INSTRUCTION
1. Tutorial System
2. Travel
3. Application
NOTE: The students had to pay fees and school and to their tutor.
one teacher taught one pupil.
aside from learning by experience. Understanding and judgement were emphasized instead of memorization. Gathering information was drawn from observation and social contacts rather from books.
another method where independent thinking of student was encouraged.
OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION
1. Tutorial System
2. Finishing School
3. Private Military Academies

SENSE REALISM
Sense realist advocated a type of education in which scientific content would be introduced and the scientific method.
AIMS OF EDUCATION
FOUR educational thinkers represent sense realism. Their viewpoints became the basis of the sense realists in formulating the aims of education.
1. Richard Mulcaster
“Children must be studied thoroughly and the innate abilities respected; make use of the games, play and exercise for learning purposes.” For a harmonious society, the natural tendencies and activities of the child must be developed.
2. Francis Bacon
“Give man dominance over things. He used the inductive method for learning. To increase scientific knowledge ofman about all things in his environment.
3. Wolfgang Ratke
“ Developed a natural method of teaching; nothing to be learned by rote; repetition must be done as often as possible; Learning by senses first then by exploration.
4. Joan Amos Comenius
“The ultimate goal of education was eternal happiness with God and education should prepare for the activities of life through knowledge. “
Learning should start from the senses; Learning should start from known to unknown. Thus, the aims were religious, intellect and practical.
AGENCIES OF EDUCATION
1. Model Educational Institution
2. Six-year vernacular elementary school
3. Comenius’ curriculum
considered four educational periods
School of Mother’s Knee
Vernacular Elementary
Latin School
University
AGENCIES OF EDUCATION
4. Francke
head of pietists, organized a group of schoolsincluding a university emphasizing scientific studies; a seminar for training teachers for the Volkschule; the pedagpoium, a secondary school of science and language.
5. Realschule
a secondary school was established by Julius Hecker in Berlin. Pure and applied science dominated the curriculum.
NOTE:
Attendance in the lower vernacular schools was free but in the higher schools, students had to pay school fees. Some schools receive endowment.

OUTSTANDING CONTRUBUTIONS
1. Training of teachers
2. Organization oftraining schools for teachers
3. Development of textbooks
4. Internal administrative organization of a school.
5. Ladderized system of Grade level Organization
6. Emphasis on science in the curriculum
7. Teaching of Science by the Laboratory Method
8. Several tested Methods of Teaching.
9. The used of vernacular in teaching.
DISCIPLINISM AND RATIONALISM
DISCIPLINISM
characterized by two reactions during the first half of the 18th century:
1. The rise of formal discipline
2. The development of aristocracy of reason or rationalism

FORMAL DISCIPLINE or DISCIPLINISM
the theory that the mind has a number distinct and general power of faculties, such as observation, memory, and will power, which should be strengthened by exercise.
JOHN LOCKE
postulated that everything in the mind came from experience, which in turn was based on the perception of the senses .
He believed that the development came only through formation of habits through discipline.
In some thoughts concerning education, strongly advocated the disciplinary theory of education, believing that the mind of the child at birth was a
tabula rasa
Tabula rasa
– blank tablet
EDUCATIONAL AIM OF FORMAL DISCIPLINISM
Formation of habits
AGENCIES OF EDUCATION AND CONTENTS STUDIED
1. The Tutor
2. Elementary school
- Spelling
- Arithmetic
- Grammar
- History

- Anatomy
- Ethics
- Dancing
- Practical
- Fine arts

*All the pupils had to pass through the three levels: elementary, secondary and college
Locke’s presented three steps in learning
1. SENSE LEARNING
2. MEMORIZATION
3. REASONING
What are sensed should be retained
No one can reason out if he has nothing in his head
OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION TO EDUCATION
Formal Discipline
RATIONALISM
The rationalist upheld the right of each individual to his own opinion, liberty of conscience, and freedom of thought. They believed that man could by his own reason improve himself and his institutions, in order to bring about the general welfare.
EDUCATIONAL AIMS
Rationalism aimed at developing and individual who could control all the aspects of
life by reason
to live in a highly artificial society.
The education resulting from these aims was aristocratic, creating a class of
illuminati
.

AGENCIES OF EDUCATION AND CONTENTS STUDIED
1. Secondary and higher schools
2. Encyclopedia
3. Fashionable salons
- Were organized under the humanist movement
- Was a compilation of all knowledge about science and philosophy discovered up to that time.
- were also considered as agency
OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION
TO EDUCATION
Training of Creative Thinking and Reasoning (Logic)
Inductive Method
NATURALISM
was an educational movement in Europe. The child was to be educated in accordance with natural laws of human development, free from all that was artificial
Jean Jacques Rosseau
He was the 1st to develop and educational theory based on naturalistic approach.
AGENCIES OF EDUCATION AND CONTENTS STUDIED
The parents had to handle the education of their children at
home
.

Tutorship
was best suited to the educational plan of Rosseau
OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION TO EDUCATION
3 Modern Principles of Teaching:
1. Principle of Growth
2. Principle of Pupil Activity
3. Priciple of Individualization
The Order of Nature:
1. Need
2. Activity
3. Experience
4. Knowledge
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