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Psychology Prezi: Chapter 17

Chapter 17
by

Kellee Hudak

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of Psychology Prezi: Chapter 17

Stress and Health Chapter 17 Changes are stressful, even when those changes are for the better. Changes that improve one's situation can cause stress because, like negative stresssors and life changes, they also require adjustment. Another source of stress is conflict; being pulled in two or more directions by opposing forces or motives. They can be extremely frustrating. There are 4 types of conflict. Approach-approach conflict involves a choice between two positive but mutually exclusive options. "Change is not made without inconvenience, even from worse to better." -Samuel Johnson A stressor is an event or situation that produces stress. Frustration can block you from obtaining a goal.
Ex: traffic or forgetting something important. Distress is also known as negative stress. Not all stress is bad! Stress is the arousal of one's mind and body in response to demands made upon them. What Is Stress? True or false? Stress forces an organism to adapt, to cope, to adjust. There are different sources of stress, including frustration, daily hassles, life changes, and conflict. Eustress is positive and motivating stress. Positive stress can be a sign that a person is taking on a challenge or trying to reach a goal. -It is linked to intense pressure or anxiety that can have severe psychological and physical effects.
-When stress becomes too severe or prolonged, it can strain people's ability to adjust to various situations.
-Can damper people's moods, impair pleasure, and even harm the body. examples: loud, continuous drilling noise outside

-It is important to recognize some of the causes of stress in order cope properly. Daily hassles are the everyday frustrations that we all experience.
Ex: household, health, time-pressure, inner-concern, environmental, financial, and work hassles. hassles occur regularly, often on a daily basis; life changes tend to happen less frequently , often after a long, stable period of little or no change. These conflicts are usually resolved by making a decision. Section 1 -Changes are stressful, even when those changes are for the better.
-Laughter can help people cope with stress
-Few people are exposed to microorganisms that cause disease.
-Many people develop cancerous cells but do not become ill from them. Example: participating in a classroom activity, whether you are leading or following the activity. Avoidance-avoidance conflict involves a choice between two negative or undesirable options. Ex: going to the dentist or letting a toothache get worse. Approach-avoidance conflict involves a single goal that has both positive and negative aspects. Ex: deciding whether or not to buy a new CD player because it will cost a lot of money. Multiple approach-avoidance conflict involves a choice between two or more opinions, each of which has both positive and negative aspects. Ex: deciding to stay at home to study for a test or to go out to the movies with friends. Personality types Psychologists have classified people into two basic personality types: Type A (intense) and Type B (laid back). Type A: always on the go,
put pressure on themselves,
always under stress, highly
driven, competitive, impatient,
always feel rushed, irritable, talk,
eat, and walk faster than people. Type B: relaxed, patient, less driven, not as angry,
opposite of type A. Section 2 Responses to Stress People with different types of personalities respond to stress in different ways.
People who are relaxed and free of conflict are less likely than others to become sick when they do experience prolonged stress. Research suggests that some people inherit the tendency to develop certain health problems under stress. The next five factors influence the effects of stress. Factors that influence the effects of stress. Self-Efficacy Expectations -the beliefs people have that they can accomplish goals that they set for themselves. -Some of these goals can be dunk a basketball or learn to solve math problems. *A child who develops strong self-efficacy expectations will probably have a greater sense of self-confidence as an adult. Psychological Hardiness -a personality characteristic that helps people withstand stress. Researchers found that psychologically hardy executives differed from other executives in 3 important ways
commitment
challenge
control -other researchers found that believing that one is in control of one's situation tends to enhance ones ability to withstand stress. Sense of Humor Since humor and laughter are connected with feelings of happiness, they probably really are good "medicine" for the body. It is TRUE that laughter can help people cope with stress. Research studies and the personal experiences of many people suggest that laughter is healthy and can actually reduce physical symptoms. Predictability -The ability to predict a stressor seems to reduce the amount of stress it causes.

-It allows people to brace themselves for an event and, in many cases, to plan various ways to cope. Social Support Social support helps people remain healthy and in good spirits when caring for other people who have serious healthy problems. Ways to provide social support:
express your concern and listen to problems.
offer material support
give advice
provide with feedback
socialize Section 3 Physical Effects of Stress The General Adaptation Syndrome -the body's response to a source of stress. The GAS has three stages: an alarm reaction, a resistance stage, and en exhaustion stage. The
Alarm Reaction -initiated when a stressor is perceived. This reaction mobilizes the body for defense action. When a person first perceives a stressor, the body initiates n alarm reaction, which mobilizes the body for defense action, This reaction is known as the fight-or-flight response. The Resistance Stage During this stage, people attempt to find a way to cope with the stressor to avoid being overwhelmed by their negative reactions to the stressor. The Exhaustion Stage AT this stage, the adrenal and other glands activated by the fight-or-flight reaction can no longer continue to secrete hormones. *hormones are being released *may cause people to develop health problems ranging from allergies and hives to ulcers and heart disease, even death. Effects of Stress on the Immune System The immune system prevents disease by producing white blood cells that destroy disease-causing microorganisms. Most people are exposed to a great variety of disease-causing organisms. however, an intact immune system manages to fight off most of them. ** It is NOT true that few people are exposed to the microorganisms that cause disease. Section 4 Psychological Factors and Health *Biological factors play an important role in physical illness. *A family history of health problems may tempt some people to assume there is little they can do to influence their health Headaches Muscle tension headache- muscles in forehead, neck, shoulders, and scalp tend to tighten do to stress. Migraine headaches usually have a sudden onset and are identified as a severe throbbing pain on one side of the head. Treatment *relaxation, aspirin, and behavioral methods. Heart Disease Factors associated with heath disease:
family history
physical conditions
patterns of consumption
type of behavior
anger and hostility
job strain
lack of exercise Behavioral changes that reduce the
risk of heart disease:
quitting smoking
controlling weight
reducing hypertension
lowering serum cholesterol levels
changing type A behavior patterns
exercising regularly It is TRUE that many people develop cancerous cells but do not become ill from them. A strong immune system regularly rids the body of such cells. A weakened immune system has a more difficult time destroying them. cancer -disease that involves the rapid and abnormal growth of malignant cells. They can take root ANYWHERE. Section 5 Ways of Coping with Stress *Defensive coping is one way to reduce the immediate effects of a stressor, but is probably not the most desirable way.
*it may involve socially unacceptable behavior. (self-deception) People who use defensive methods can harm themselves. Examples of defensive coping include
substance abuse (use drugs to reduce feelings of stress)
aggression (frustration or stressful situations)
withdrawal (frightened or feel helpless or regret decisions)
suicide (hopeless and giving up)
defense mechanisms (protect ego from anxiety that may be produced by an awareness of unacceptable ideas) Active Coping *involves changing the environment or situation to remove stressors or changing ones response to stress so that stressors are no longer harmful. -some methods of active coping include changing stressful thoughts, relaxing and strengthening one's ability to withstand stress through exercise. Exercise *one of the most effective ways to control stress and maintain physical and psychological well-being *running, jogging, swimming, bicycle riding, jumping rope, and team sports. Changing Stressful Thoughts Stressful Thoughts
I feel like I'm
losing control

This will never
end. Calming Thoughts
This is painful and
upsetting, but i don't have
to go to pieces.

This will come to an
end even if it's hard to see
it right now. *each of these thoughts increase the amount of stress people experience. *people who have stressful
thoughts can learn to
recognize and change them
before becoming overwhelmed
by them Relaxation *helps lower stress in the body by reducing muscle tension. *When there is no way to reduce or eliminate stressors, thinking calming thoughts and relaxing the body will increase the ability to endure stress.
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