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Russian Revolution 1905-1922

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James Richardson

on 14 March 2014

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Transcript of Russian Revolution 1905-1922

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In a span of 12 years (1905-1917) a group of ambitious proleteriats overthrow a dynasty that ruled Russia for more than 300 years. (Romonav)
Poor leadership and basic needs not being met led to the collapse of Russian nobility.
Country was built on blood, sweat, and tears of Serfdom.
The rise of global communism thanks to Lenin and his Bolshevik followers led to global hysteria and a villain to capitalism.
From the Streets to the Winter Palace
Lenin, Marxism, and The Bolsheviks

The people want answer to why the rich kept getting richer and the poor stay the same.
As a result, Czar Nicholas II was forced to
abdicate
the throne. This ended the Romanov dynasty.
His family would be executed a year later.
Life of a Serf
Bottom of the social pyramid.
Not seen as a citizen.
The backbone of Russian Society.
Lived in
communes
with one another.
Largest population group
Emancipated
in 1861 by
Czar Alexander II.


Key Points of Russian Society
More than 130 million people with multiple languages and different cultures
Patriarchal
(Male dominated society)
All political decisions made by royalty, aristocracy, and land-owners.
Peasants (formally known as serfs) were majority of population.
Russian Revolution
Russian Empire: Turn of the 20th Century
Majority of Russian Empire was rural land. (Farming land)
Population Breakdown
Royalty/Nobility/Clergy: 12.5%
Merchants/Bureaucrats: 1.5%
Factory workers/Artisans/Soldiers: 4%
Landed/Landless Farmers: 82%
Serfs
EQ: What did the Russian Empire look like at the turn of the century?
Czar Alexander II AKA: "Czar Liberator"
Emancipated serfs in 1861.
Promoted
industrialization
to Russia through administrative, economic, and civic institutions.
Assassinated in 1881 by the extremist group, The People's Will
The Romanov
Dynasty

Reigned from 1881-1894.
Coined the phrase
Russification: Any country conquered by Russian Empire was forced to adopt the Russian language and culture.
Opposed liberal reform and brought unhappiness to the whole empire.
Created an
anti-semitic
society.
Promoted
pogroms
: organized violence against Jews.
Alexander III
"It is better to abolish serfdom from above than await the time when it will begin to abolish itself from below"
-Czar Alexander II
To Moscow nobility, March 1858
Question:
In order to build institutions and modernize a nation what is needed?
Pogroms
Reigned 1894-1917
Never wanted to become Czar.
Was not a strong leader and used his secret police to stay in control.
Under his reign social discontent would grow to an all-time high.
Is credited for building the Trans-Siberian railroad.
Nicholas II
EQ: What legacy did the Romanov Dynasty leave on the Russian Empire?

Lasted from Feb. 1904-Sept. 1905
Embarrassing defeat to much smaller Japan. Defeated by lack of weaponry and overall shortages.
Debt and hunger took over the Russian Empire.
Mass rallies and protests occupied the streets of Moscow and Petrograd (St. Petersburg)
Russo-Japanese War
Bloody Sunday
In January of 1905 industrial workers rallied in St. Petersburg at the
Winter Palace
.
They wanted civil reforms.
It was a peace rally which turned into a massacre.
The chief of police Grand Duke Vladimir ordered his men to open fire on the crowd.
More than 100 marchers were killed and several hundred more wounded.
Bloody Sunday
EQ: What is Marxism?
After Bloody Sunday the population was furious, more riots and protests were mounted and the people wanted new order and reforms.
1905 Nicholas II agrees to set-up the
DUMA
. The first Russian elected Parliament. October Manifesto gives people civil rights
Nicholas II and parliament never were on the same page, every document the DUMA brought to the table Nicholas II would
veto
.
Eventually Nicholas II would dissolve DUMA that would oppose him and change laws that favored landed nobility.
As a result, the people turned to various revolutionary groups for answers.
Their answer was
Vladimir Lenin
his
Bolshevik
followers and his
Marxist/Communism
approach to government,
To understand Karl Marx and his political views lets ask him!
The history of all previous societies has been a history of class struggle.
-Karl Marx

The workers of the world have nothing to lose, but their chains, workers of the world unite.
-Karl Marx
Karl Marx
Vladimir Lenin
Bolsheviks
Leon Trotsky
Joseph Stalin
World War I
As the Russian people wanted change, the world around them was changing.
WWI: 1914-1919 (Russian involvement 1914-1918)
Drawn into war because of
Triple Entente Treaty
signed in 1907.
Quickly escalated into total War.
Russia suffered 8 million casualties.
Weapon shortages and lack of resources led to a weakened army.
Nicholas II leaves for the
frontlines
to boost morale.

"We are not producing more than 24,000
shells a day. . . But our shortage of rifles
alarms me far more. Just think! In several
infantry regiments at least one third of the
men had no rifle. These poor devils had to
wait patiently under a shower of shrapnel,
until their comrades fell before their eyes
and they could pick up their arms [rifles]."

-Russian General
Can anyone tell me who this is?
How about now?
Grigori Rasputin
Self proclaimed "holy man".
Manipulated Nicholas II and Czarina Alexandra into thinking cured their son of
Hemophilia
.
To show their gratitude, the royal family granted him political power.
He would abuse this power.
Dec. 1916 he was asked to dinner by other influential figures in the gov't and killed.

March Revolution
Provisional Government
With no more Czar, members of the old DUMA set up a new ruling entity known as the
Provisional Government
, led by Aleksandr Kerensky.
Councils of workers known as
"soviets"
campaigned to end wealthy elites and offer more for concern for the
proletariats
.
Peasants continued to try and seize power by seizing aristocratic estates.
Provisional Government downfall was the inability to get Russia out of WWI.
October Revolution
Bolshevik Revolution
Lenin and his Bolshevik followers overthrow the Provisional Government.
Lenin changes name of the Bolsheviks party to the
communist party
.
Signs the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
and ends WWI for the Russian Empire in March of 1918.
Affirmed the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania.
This was the most fertile agricultural land of Russia.
Can a nation be free if it oppresses other nations? It cannot.
-Lenin
Under socialism all will govern in turn and will soon become accustomed to no one governing.
-Lenin
Give me four years to teach the children and the seed I have sown will never be uprooted.
-Lenin
Revolution Propaganda
After the Bolshevik takeover, Lenin implemented land reforms and centralized the the bank system.
For the land reforms he took all the farmland away from the aristocratic landlords and gave it all to the peasants.
Anyone who opposed the Bolsheviks had to answer to the
Cheka
, secret police who disposed of anyone against Lenin.
Lenin would move the capital to Moscow from St. Petersburg.
In order to ensure everyone followed communist ideals and learned their ways a Commissar was place in charge.
Leon Trotsky was not only the Bolshevik army general he was also the commissar.
To spread their communist beliefs worldwide Bolsheviks created
Comintern
: organization dedicated to spreading communist ideals.
Aristocratic elite (former provisional government) wanted revenge and built a solid foundation to fight against the Bolshevik party.
Civil War
1918-1921
Bolsheviks (Red Army) vs. Aristocratic (White Army)
The White Army received help from the US, France, and Britain to stop the spread of communism.
This still wasn't enough as the Red Army would prevail.
Lenin and his next in charge Trotsky would both die during the civil war leaving the Bolsheviks and the country in the hands of Joseph Stalin.
Red Terror

Social progress can be measured by the social position of the female sex.
Karl Marx
For the bureaucrat, the world is a mere object to be manipulated by him.
Karl Marx
Revolutions are the locomotives of history.
Karl Marx
Landlords, like all other men, love to reap where they never sowen.
Karl Marx
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