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Key to Language and Content

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Michelle Joo

on 12 February 2016

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Transcript of Key to Language and Content

Main Question
What is the Language and Content Approach and how does it support all students, particularly ELL students, with academically engaging material across content areas?
Conclusion
Before We Begin...
What is the Knowledge Framework?
The Key to Language and Content
Thank you!
Case 4: TELL
by Sara, Sigrid, Katie and Michelle
Table of Contents
GLOSSARY Page 1
Why Use a Language and Content Approach?
Language as a medium for learning:

Language is a system that relates
content
and the means used to talk about it (
expression
) (Mohan, 1986, p. 1)
An integrative approach that relates language learning and content learning, one that focuses
language as a medium of learning
, and acknowledges
the role of context in communication
Therefore,
focusing language as a
medium
for learning about the world connects language learning with learning about the world
B.C. New Curriculum
These are the
Big Ideas for English Language Arts at the grade 4 level (2015)
text can be understood from different perspectives
language and text can be a source of creativity and joy
using language in creative and playful ways helps us understand how language works

Exploring text and story helps us understand ourselves and make connections to others and to the world.
Combining different texts and ideas allows us to create new understandings
listening carefully helps us learn
texts are created for different purposes and audiences

All these learning objectives which are similar at every grade level, are very open ended and can easily
accommodate a bilingual classroom
and support the knowledge framework. They also enhance the classroom community by having an
inclusive language that is open to the teacher's interpretation.

Units Designed Around the Six Specific Knowledge Structures
Knowledge should be taught and organized through the six specific knowledge structures (Mohan 1986).
The curriculum falls easily into these six categories and each category has a unique linguistic features that sets apart them structurally
The best way to teach language and content is by using thematic units that follow one or more six knowledge structures because it takes second language learners 4-9 years to develop cognitive-academic language (Early, 1990). Teachers should teach students how to organize the patterns of their knowledge and develop the language to express this new knowledge.
This approach will
improve students cognitive and linguistic development.
Use practical activities based on units that students will learn both
language and the subject areas knowledge and concepts that are displayed in context.

Strategies
Incorporating Language and Content
Lesson Planning
Diverse Texts
Summary Frames
Vocabulary Building
Strategies Continued
Fostering Differentiated Learning
Bridging Language and Content
Through Interactive Teaching
Teachers should design thematic units with analysis that do not get bogged down in grammar and punctuation
These thematic units should as well focus on real language that is based on situation that structures knowledge and transfers knowledge and thinking across the curriculum
Also these units should use systemic functional model of language developed by Halliday
Lessons should incorporate the
use of multi media-interrelationships between visual, graphic, writing, and talking.
Units should be backed up with informative books
As well units should be formed and organized around the knowledge framework (Mohan 1986)
An example of a thematic lesson plan that centers ELL’s needs at the forefront is the Plant unit on the UBC Connect website that uses Margaret Early’s Framework
Interactive language teaching

progressively relating language to the
community
, through the normal activities of the school and the English-speaking community ; language teaching
through content and for content
(Mohan, 1986, p. 4)
recognizes the importance of language as a medium of learning
developing
human relations communications skills
(ex. how to communicate in social environments; in school, the workplace, home environment, etc.)
language for
social situations

Read Aloud
Think-Pair-Share
Graphic Organizers
Cambourne's Conditions
of Learning
English as a Second Language in the Classroom
“I argue that every educator has the right to make a positive difference in children’s lives and also that every educator has the responsibility to make a positive difference in children’s lives.”
- Jim Cummins
Cummins encourages educators to challenge the historical relationships between dominant and subordinate communities and test the relations of power (2003)
Because the interactions between educators and minority students reflects the students academic success or failure of these students.
Also something to consider is that
micro-interactions between educators and students are never neutral
Creating empowerment in l
inguistically diverse schools means valuing individual students and their families
In Vancouver 47.9% students speak English as a second language

Therefore teachers must teach English
through content instruction that encourages form/function analysis
that will lead to natural acquisition.
Students should be able to use their previous experience with oral and written language to develop the second language and the instruction should not be watered down.

Big Ideas
- Are learning objectives for each subject area that are set out by the Ministry of Education and are outlined in B.C.'s new curriculum.

Classification:
categorizes or sorts concepts or classes of particular things and events)
Example: Fruit—concept

Cognitive-academic languag
e- is a term that refers to formal academic learning

Concepts:
Illustrated by a "symbolic" visual or verbal representation (a stick man figure or the word "fruit").

Cone of Experience:
Initially establishes the symbolic meaning and then concludes with the realistic

Description:
Characterizes or describes those concepts
Example: Apples, pears, or oranges—examples of the concept

Experiential Approaches:
Teaching/learning is achieved through action (laboratory/workshop experience, art, music, or home economics, field-trips, demonstrations, role playing, case studies) and significantly reflective of practical aspects of a subject matter.

Expository Approaches:
Teaching/learning is achieved verbally and explicitly (textbook, lecture, classroom discussions) and significantly reflective of symbolic and theoretical aspects of a subject matter.

General Theoretical Knowledge:
Overviews broader concepts; these concepts are demonstrated through language or symbolic visuals (charts, tables, graphs) and are
most efficiently conveyed through expository teaching/learning practices.

Interactive language teaching
: progressively relating language to the community that results in the development of human relations communications skills across different social environments


Introduction
Bernie Mohan introduces the Knowledge Framework (1986), which is also known as the Language and Content Approach, to accommodate the need for cognitive and language development in an
ethnically and linguistically diverse
classroom.
In connecting to BC's new curriculum, our research package explores what the framework is, the different strategies involved, and specific lesson plans that foster language learning which enables students to learn with confidence and positivity.
Learning in the Content Class
Content courses in the new language abolishes grammatical explanations and drills. Instead, it teaches the learners valuable information and skills.
Content instruction is centered on communicating information, not on the language used –
the student learns another language most effectively when communicating with someone about a topic
(that is interesting to the student)
requires the task of language learning
(Mohan, 1986, p. 9)





Content teaching strategy only works if
the student understands the discourse of the content course- understand what is happening
and whether the content is familiar to the student (he/she may have studied the subject in his/her home country) (Mohan, 1986, p. 9)
Language teaching must be situational

Viewing ELL students solely as language learners is a violation of their right to an education
" (Mohan, 1986)

What Are the Six Principles of Effective Second Language Learning?
ELLs' educational experiences should be developed on the basis of their prior educational and personal experiences
Language learning should not be limited to academic purposes
Cognitive and academic development should accompany the acquisition of the second language
Activities or tasks should be organized into thematic unit plans
Importance of Parental Involvement
Verbal language is not the only medium for meaning-making
Background of the Language and Content Approach
Source: http://static.wixstatic.com/media/01d2b3_cb98e6a2ce344462a9ea26a49e00fa95.jpg
Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum
The Language and Content Approach
is essentially derived from
Bernard Mohan's

Knowledge of Framework
. With the principles of effective second language learning in mind, Mohan organized a systematic framework to help teachers create lesson plans and activities that would simultaneously integrate language and content across the curriculum (1986).
Mohan's Knowledge Framework
is organized based on the idea of
situation
.
Situation
—"gardening, playing a game, conducting an experiment, making muffins, solving a math problem, or any such activity would be examples of sociocultural situations" (Early, 1990).
These situations are relevant to education because all curricula aims at
assisting and motivating learners into the public situations of society
(Mohan, 1986, p. 46).
Reading in the content areas or ‘
functional reading
’ is usually not taught to ELLs (Mohan, 1986, p. 14) : reading to learn from text or any literacy material is a life-long skill that can be continuously improved
some reading instruction should be given by the content teacher in the content class
for example: reading mathematical terms and concepts in order to answer mathematical questions – need to develop
functional reading skills
prior to answering big mathematical questions
There are reading and thinking skills
across the whole curriculum
that are important to the learner's engagement across the curriculum.
Reading skills
consists of three sets:
i.)
Developmental reading:
basic ability to read
ii)
Functional reading skills:
ability to manage the reading tasks of a specific content area
iii.)
Cross-content reading skills
: cognitive processes required by all subject areas across the curriculum
Writing Across the Curriculum
Writing across the curriculum
(WATC)
If teachers can provide more opportunities for communicating between students and writing, student communication about subject matter is able to allow for
reflective thinking
Content teaching can be viewed as an environment where

writing and communication play a role in learning
(Mohan, 1986)

Source: https://d2exfniknrd5pp.cloudfront.net/provider_photo/4659/large/kids_working_together.jpg?1392053565
Benefits of the Language and Content Approach

Using
interesting content and stressing meaning
results in students engaging in some sort of form/function analysis that leads naturally
to acquisition of English (Early, 1990)
Teaching language and content empowers students and enables
students to learn language with
confidence and a positive attitude

Teachers are
able to adapt their lessons around the knowledge
framework to accommodate the different degrees of English proficiency

Can adapt to different learning strategies of students
When students, including students low in English proficiency, are supported with tasks targeting specific knowledge frameworks across discourses, they are able to demonstrate improved, strong language
skills
Engage more motivated learners because students can use the language for
a real purpose in a meaningful way
Students can
extend their knowledge of the world
through content
based instructions
Differentiated instruction and learning from different sources helps students with their
collaborative skills
as they develop valuable
thinking skills while also strengthening
oral language skills
Teachers can collaborate sharing strategies for language and content

Challenges of the Language and Content Approach
Learning language can take many years to learn, therefore teachers
cannot expect quick competence right away

Adjusting to the variation in rates of development of oral and academic language proficiency among students
Finding a way to engage students with subjects that they are most interested in – this approach may be challenging at first, depending on the willingness of the students
ELLs may not realize that they are practicing the new language and may find it easier to use their first language during these lessons –- explain your rationale and
the benefits of using your content based instruction strategies

However, the benefits of this approach clearly outweigh the potential challenges and we believe that teaching language through content instruction results in educated, skilled, life-long language growth amongst all learners.
Source: http://www.javavolleyball.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/images/success-building-blocks.299131558_std.png
A. Specific, PRACTICAL aspect:
find particular examples, specific cases within the topic. What would a film about a topic show?
1. Description
—who, what, where? What persons, materials, equipment, items, settings?
2. Sequence
—what happens? What happens next? What is the plot? What are the processes, procedures, or routines?
3. Choice:
What are the choices, conflicts, alternatives, dilemmas, and decisions? (Mohan, 1986, p. 36)

Mohan's framework acts as a template for how knowledge is structured across the curriculum, which is significant because "the ways in which knowledge is structured are similar from situation to situation" (Early, 1990).
Thus, this framework is useful because every teacher hopes to demonstrate the subject matter's
shape
—that is, the "structure that underlies the detailed information".
Example) The science teacher wants the students to learn beyond the immediate class science experiment and, instead,
be able to transfer their knowledge and learning
to the general idea of the science experiment (Mohan 1986, p. 39).
Ultimately, this permeable framework makes it possible for language and thinking skills to be transferred from one content area to another.

B. General, THEORETICAL aspect:
what are the general concepts, principles, and values in the topic materials?
1. Classification
—what concepts apply? How are they related to each other?
2. Principles—
what principles are there? (Cause-effect, means-end, methods and techniques, rules, norms, strategies)
3. Evaluation
—what values and standards are appropriate? What counts as good or bad? What are typical reasons for choosing one objector course of action over another? What are usual aims and goals? (Mohan, 1986, p. 36-37)
"Key to this approach to topics is to find the main structures of topic information" (Mohan, 1986, p. 35)
In order to find the main structure of the subject matter, the teacher must create a lesson that utilizes a general knowledge framework, which can be applicable to a wide range of topics.
The Knowledge Framework can be understood through a series of potential questions that a teacher may ask when exploring a subject matter or a topic material. These guiding questions can be adapted and modified based on the student's literacy skill (Mohan, 1986, p. 37).
Practical Knowledge
Versus
Theoretical Knowledge
Example of Using The Knowledge Framework: Modifying a Social Studies unit
Examples:

Classrooms are full of students with a wide range of ability. Grade level texts are often accessible to a small portion of the class. Just because a student cannot decode text efficiently at their grade level, does not mean they cannot access the content and ideas. By providing text at the students' instructional level, students can engage with content and concepts with their peers without the barrier of decoding. (Moore, S.)
Annotated Bibliography
Annenberg Learner (2015). Reading across the curriculum. Retrieved from:
http://www.learner.org/workshops/teachreading35/classrooms/cv5.html

The video on this website takes a look inside a classroom located in Portland, Oregon where a grade 5 teacher is implementing the language and content framework around a lesson on global warming. The video takes us through the morning routine which begins with a read aloud in which the teacher miodels strategies of effective reading, tools for deciphering troubling words, building vocabulary, developing critical questions surrounding a text, sharing ideas with a partner, filling in a graphic organizer, and communicating with peers about information found in the text.

British Columbia Ministry of Education (2015). Building Student Success - BC's New Curriculum (Building Student Success - BC's New Curriculum)
https://curriculum.gov.bc.ca/curriculum/english-language-arts/4

This is the Ministry of Education new curriculum document that outlines the Big Ideas for English Language Arts at the Grade 4 level. This Ministry document explains the learning objectives, expectations and gives educators a sketch of ideas they have to incorporate into their lesson plans. Although this document is open to the interpretation of the teacher.

Cambourne, Brian. (1995) "Toward An Educationally Relevant Theory Of Literacy Learning: Twenty Years Of Inquiry". The Reading Teacher, Vol. 49, No. 3.

Brian Cambourne introduces his conditions of learning model as it applies to literacy. Through this model Cambourne promotes balanced literacy in a language learning environment. This model has seven parts, immersion, expectation, responsibility, approximation, demonstration, employment and feedback. Cambourne promotes this model as a means to engage students in curriculum and through this model we can argue that literacy and content can be addressed as being interdependent of one another.

Cummins, J. (2003). Jim Cummins' Second Language Learning and Literacy Development Web (Jim Cummins' Second Language Learning and Literacy Development Web)
http://www.iteachilearn.org/cummins/

This is Jim Cummins' official website which focuses on the development of the second language acquisition and the power dynamics between dominant and subordinate cultures. It also gives many ideas, suggestions, and examples of how to incorporate TELL into the classroom. I found this website extremely helpful and an interesting read as it not only gave ways of how to form an inclusive classroom but also pointed out how discrimination can be present in the classroom setting.

Early, M. (1990). Enabling first and second language learners in the classroom. Language Arts, 67(6), 567-575.

This article provides an in-depth explanation of the knowledge framework that we based our project on. Early goes into great detail of how the six different structures that knowledge is based on their linguistic pattern and how to teach these distinct patterns of knowledge to a class. This article is extremely helpful because it outlines the knowledge framework in great detail and demonstrates how teaching language in context proves to be more beneficial to ELL learners.



fiction or non-fiction
magazine or newspaper articles
blogs, and internet sites
pictures and videos

Benefits of Diverse Texts
1. Builds decoding skills
When students are interacting with text at their instructional level, they are practicing their decoding and fluency skills without overly relying on them to understand content.
2. Builds comprehension
Students can access similar concepts with different texts, all having the opportunity to contribute to discussions and connection between texts and their experiences (Moore, S.)



A summary frame gives a student the opportunity to read a passage
independently before summarizing what they have read to a peer. The use of a summary frame involves the acquisition of new vocabulary “to summarize”, reading, and comprehension.

Example:

If the main idea of the passage is problem/solution use the following frame:

___________ wanted _____________ but ______________ so

____________________

If the main idea of the passage is cause/effect use the following frame:

_______________ happens because ________________

Create a map for deciphering troubling words.

Encouraging students to be responsible for their learning and modeling the steps to decode challenging words fosters confidence and promotes an environment that values taking risks. Through this method not only are the students given the steps to create meaning, but they are also learning vocabulary associated with literacy.

Step one: sound it out
Step two: look for the root word. Do you recognize any part of the troubling word?
Step three: re-read, before and after the troubling word for context
Step four: choose a synonym and substitute it to see if it makes sense
Step five: look up the word in a dictionary if it is necessary



Adapted from: Annenberg Learner (2015). Reading across the curriculum
Develops student’s background knowledge
Stimulates interest in literature
Increases comprehension skills
Fosters critical thinking
Allows the teacher to model reading strategies that students can use during their own independent reading

The most significant difference within the knowledge framework is the difference between the
general, theoretical knowledge
and the
specific, practical knowledge
. This difference can be understood by contrasting classification with description. For example, a
classification
categorizes or sorts concepts or classes of particular things and events); on the other hand,
description
characterizes or describes those concepts (Mohan, 1986, p. 40).
Example: Classification: Fruit—concept
Description: Apples, pears, or oranges—examples of the concept
A
concept
is a category or class of items which all share common characteristics—"the concept is universal and its instances are particular" (Mohan, 1986, p. 41).

Example:
Select a book, pre-read in order to find topics that can
evoke critical questions,
and
look for troubling words
which may need to be addressed.
Before reading the book to the class do a
picture walk.
Look at the illustrations in the book and work together to decipher what the book might be about –
this requires students to make connections and call upon prior knowledge.
Read the book to the class stopping to ask questions and address troubling words.
Reflect on the story, issues, main topic within the story and ask students to
make connections to similarities or differences within their own experiences.
(Meller, W.B., Richardson, D., & Hatch, J. A.)

Annotated Bibliography
Cone of Experience
Particular
things are usually illustrated by pictures that are more specific and "realistic" (picture of a particular female or a particular apple).
Concepts
are often illustrated by a "symbolic" visual or verbal representation (a stick man figure or the word "fruit").
This distinction is often referred to "The Cone of Experience".
The Cone of Experience
initially establishes the symbolic meaning and then concludes with the realistic—that is, "it starts with verbal symbols and visual symbols; continues through still pictures to moving picture to exhibits; and finally ends in direct, purposeful experiences" (Mohan, 1986, p. 41)
Expository Approaches
versus
Experiential Approaches
To Summarize...
Hurren. Patti (1990), Moberly Elementary, A Fish For A Pet, One Unit in the Series Themes and Topics for Intermediate I Classrooms, 1-45.

This source is a unit on fish directed at intermediate students that supports the idea of teaching English through content based instruction. This is shown by the lesson plans being developed around the knowledge framework approach. This was a valuable source for our research package as it was a great example show how to design units around the six specific knowledge structures.

Meller, W.B., Richardson, D., & Hatch, J. A. (2009). Using read-alouds with critical literacy literature in k-3 classrooms. Of Primary Interest. Retrieved from https://www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/200911/PrimaryInterestWeb1109.pdf

This guide describes a read-aloud as being an important part of literacy instruction in classrooms. Teachers can use this technique to develop children’s background knowledge, stimulate interest, increase comprehension skills, and encourage critical thinking. Read-alouds are a great technique to use while bridging the gap between being a language teacher and being a content teacher. The article talks about the importance of choosing high quality children’s books which prompt students to think about social issues that impact their everyday lives.

Mitchell, Patrice, Carleton Elementary School, Vancouver, Plants, One unit in the series Themes and Topics for Primary Classrooms, 1-45.

This source is a unit on plants that is targeted at primary students that again supports the idea of teaching English through content based approach. This is demonstrated by lesson plans being designed around the knowledge framework approach. This was a valuable source because it showed educators how to design and use units based on the six specific knowledge structures.

Mohan, B. (1986). Language as a medium of learning. In Mohan, B., Language and content (1-22). United States: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

In the first chapter of Mohan’s book, Mohan frames his rationale for creating the knowledge framework around the notion that language is a medium for learning about the world. An integrative approach such as the language and content approach is necessary because it relates language learning and content learning. This approach ultimately acknowledges the role of context in communication. We focus our research on how interactive language teaching and writing and reading across the curriculum supports the knowledge framework.

Mohan, B. (1986). A knowledge framework for activities.. In Mohan, B., ALanguage and content (25-52). United States: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

In the second chapter of
Language and Content
, Bernie Mohan introduces the structure of the Knowledge Framework. He explains and draws examples from each category: Classification—Description, Principles—Sequence, and Evaluation—Choice. The chapter also discusses the important difference between theoretical and practical areas of the Knowledge Framework. This chapter is very useful because it provides concrete examples of how the framework is utilized in lesson plans across the curriculum.

Moore, S. Teaching with multiple text levels: To include students with the most significant special needs. Retrieved from: https://blogsomemoore.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/diverse-texts.pdf

Shelley Moore's powerpoint talks about the importance of using diverse texts when differentiating instruction in a diverse classroom. When engaging students in different types of text it is important to understand the needs of each individual student in order to maximize the learning outcomes. Using diverse texts allows content to be accessible to students of all literacy and language levels .

Differentiated instruction aims to tailor instruction in order to meet the individual goals of the students, to improve learning outcomes, increase engagement, increase self-awareness, inspire a love of learning, and to help students learn more efficiently with deeper understanding. Read alouds, think-pair-share activities, and graphic organizers are all strategies that can be used to differentiate learning through a language and content approach.
Two types of teaching and learning approaches can be derived by looking at the distinction between practical and theoretical aspects of the Knowledge Framework.

1. Expository Approaches
textbook, lecture, classroom discussions
teaching/learning is achieved
verbally and explicitly
significantly reflective of
symbolic and theoretical aspects
of a subject matter
2. Experiential Approaches
laboratory/workshop experience, practical activity (art, music, or home economics), field-trips, demonstrations (live or on film), role playing, case studies
teaching/learning is achieved through
action
significantly reflective of
practical aspects
of a subject matter (Mohan, 1986, p. 41)
The Think-Pair-Share strategy is designed to differentiate instruction by providing students time and structure for thinking on a given topic, enabling them to formulate individual ideas and share these ideas with a peer. This strategy provides an opportunity for all students to share their thinking with at least one other student which, in turn, increases their sense of involvement in classroom learning. Think-Pair-Share helps students develop conceptual understanding of a topic, develop the ability to filter information and draw conclusions, and develop the ability to consider other points of view.
General, Theoretical Knowledge
Specific, Practical Knowledge
overviews broader concepts
these concepts are demonstrated through language or symbolic visuals (charts, tables, graphs)
most efficiently conveyed through expository teaching/learning practices (Mohan, 1986, p. 42)
overviews specific things and events
these particular instances are demonstrated through pictures, films, drama, or by direct/hands-on experiences
most efficiently conveyed through experiential teaching/learning practices (Mohan, 1986, p.42)
GOAL: Teacher should organize subject matter to not only convey clear information to ELLs, but to emphasize the structure of the topic and to foster their thinking skills.
Seventh grade Social Studies Unit, "Marooned", on enhancing cultural understanding (Mohan, 1986, p. 38)
The project begins with a number of adventurous school trips and ends with the students imagining themselves being "marooned" on a deserted island/desert.
Their imagination is strengthened with a picture book that is portrayed on an overhead projector.
The only means of survival is to create their own culture with their own system of government.
The exercises and activities are stepping stones toward building their own culture

they "learn about their new environment, discover ways of meeting their physical, mental, and social needs, and make decisions about issues that arise".
Students go through the information packages that include information about the environment, such as details about different kinds of resources and its uses.
(Mohan, 1986, p. 38)
By using content and stressing meaning, students will engage naturally in learning that promotes language acquisition. The Language and Content framework empowers students and fosters a positive attitude towards their own abilities and to language. (Early, 1990)
Immersion - learners need to be immersed in a variety of texts
Demonstration - teachers must model how texts are constructed and used.
(Immersion and Demonstration lead to meaningful engagement)
Engagement - Students need to have a desire to learn
Expectations - Students need to be in an environment where adults believe they will acquire literacy skills
Responsibility - Students need to be given opportunities to make learning decisions that facilitate ownership and independence.
Approximation (taking risks) - Students need to feel free to make attempts as they test their language hypotheses that move them closer and closer to conventional language use
Use - Students need to have opportunities to apply their developing literacy abilities in meaningful ways.
Response - Students need to receive feedback from knowledgeable people on their attempts at using language. (Cambourne, 1995)
1) Example of using CLASSIFICATION
—Description:

Classification charts are used to list these resources under particular headings:
Resource
—coconut
Description—palm tree with nuts
Location—along the beaches
Kind—plant
Use—food
(Mohan, 1986, p. 38)
EXAMPLE OF TASKS THAT USE THE KNOWLEDGE FRAMEWORK
2) Example of using PRINCIPLES
—Sequence
:

After debating what kinds of resources they will need in order to satisfy their different needs (such as physical needs) they fill in a means-end chart:
Material
—coconut shell
Tool—water container
Use—holds water
Need—food and water
(Mohan, 1986, p. 38)
3) Example of using EVALUATION
—Choice:

Finally, students are faced with the different issues that arise on the island. They use an evaluation chart to address the issue and the possible solutions and alternatives—the group must express their evaluation and decide on a decision for each type of issue.
Issue
—deciding on an appropriate type of government: political equality, political inequality, or no government at all (Mohan, 1986, p. 38)
This example is of classification, which is one of the harder knowledge frameworks to teach. Therefore a tree diagram could be helpful to use as it makes the connection that fish are part of a larger species in the animal kingdom.
Maroon Example—Debrief
Students must go beyond creating an imaginary culture
They need to "develop an
understanding of culture in general

that is, they must be able to see the general pattern of what they are doing; they must
see the links
between environment and resources, resources and need, social issues and social organization as matters which apply to any culture
"
(Mohan, 1986, p. 39).
In other words, the inquiry unit must be structured in a way so that students can transfer their immediate learning of culture into a larger scale understanding of culture.
The charts were useful because they allowed the students to effectively and easily obtain and comprehend the
patterns of information
from the booklets.
This technique is significantly advantageous for both monolingual English speakers and ELLs in terms of language and content development (Mohan, 1986, p. 39).
Image retrieved from: http://weknowyourdreams.com/image.php?pic=/images/island/island-09.jpg
Image retrieved from: http://tslater.public.iastate.edu/kf/images/KF-banner4.jpg
Image from: http://trendsupdates.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/appleFruit.jpg
Image from: http://www.freeclipartpics.com/images/fruit-word.gif

These two approaches co-exist within the Knowledge Framework and should be overlapped and interwoven.
Students should be motivated to use their background knowledge of oral and written language to develop and strengthen their second language learning.
Cultural identities should be recognized for enriching their educational experiences, and should not be seen from a deficit perspective.
(Early, 1990)
There are a variety of purposes to language learning: to socialize, to learn, to question, to imagine, and to wonder.
It takes a long time to master all the means of language.
There are so many different levels of language acquisition among ELLs—educators must be thoughtful of this variation and must meaningfully meet the learning needs of individual students
(Early, 1990)
The Language and Content Approach, based on Bernie Mohan's Knowledge Framework, interweaves both academic content and language teaching into thematic units
This approach helps foster the student's content area knowledge, language skills, and cognitive processing skills
As promising as it looks, this approach involves deliberate, careful, and systematic planning.
(Early, 1990)
Instead of grammatical exercises that target word or sentence level structures, students should complete tasks that target a broader discourse or theme
Thematic unit plans consisting of various tasks can target particular instances of language use
Completion of these tasks enable students to transfer their knowledge across a variety of situations, modes, and text type.
(Early, 1990)
Significance of multimedia use in younger children's learning: drawing, writing, and talk.
Incorporating info-graphics within linguistic discourse allows for efficient communication to take place and lowers the language barrier for ELLs.
(Early, 1990)
ELLs' academic accomplishment and social development are considerably improved when the school proactively engages with the parents.
In order to support ELLs to reach their fullest potential, parents and teachers must collaborate and build meaningful partnerships with each other.
(Early, 1990)
GLOSSARY Page 2
Knowledge of Framework:
Bernie Mohan (1986) organized a systematic framework to assist teachers create lesson plans and activities that would simultaneously integrate language and content across the curriculum. The Knowledge of Framework is based on situation.

A. Specific, PRACTICAL aspect
: find particular examples, specific cases within the topic. What would a film about a topic how?
1.
Description
—who, what, where? What persons, materials, equipment, items, settings?
2.
Sequence
—what happens? What happens next? What is the plot? What are the processes, procedures, or routines?
3.
Choice:
What are the choices, conflicts, alternatives, dilemmas, and decisions? (Mohan, 1986)

B. General, THEORETICAL aspect:
what are are the general concepts, principles, and values in the topic materials?
1.
Classification
—what concepts apply? How are they related to each other?
2.
Principles—
what principles are there? (Cause-effect, means-end, methods and techniques, rules, norms, strategies)
3.
Evaluation
—what values and standards are appropriate? What counts as good or bad? What are typical reasons for choosing one objector course of action over another? What are usual aims and goals? (Mohan, 1986)

Particular:
Particular things are usually illustrated by pictures that are more specific and "realistic" (a particular woman or a particular apple).

Reading skills:
i)
Developmental reading
: the basic ability to read
ii)
Functional reading skills
: ability to manage the reading tasks of a specific content area, for example: reading terms and concepts across different subject areas in order to engage with the subject
iii.)
Cross-content reading skills
: cognitive processes required by all subject areas across the curriculum

Shape
: The "structure that underlies the detailed information"(Mohan 39).
Example: The science teacher wants the students to learn beyond the immediate class science experiment and, instead, be able to transfer their knowledge and learning to the general idea of the science experiment.

Situation:
"gardening, playing a game, conducting an experiment, making muffins, solving a math problem, or any such activity would be examples of sociocultural situations" (Early, 569). These situations are relevant to education because all curricula aims at assisting and motivating learners into the public situations of society (Mohan, 46).

Specific Practical Knowledge
: Overviews specific things and events; these particular instances are demonstrated through pictures, films, drama, or by direct/hands-on experiences, and are most efficiently conveyed through experiential teaching/learning practices.

Systemic functional model of languag
e- is an approach to linguistics that sees language as a social semiotic system
Retrieved from: https://blogsomemoore.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/diverse-texts.pdf
This is an example of each knowledge framework and how it can be applied to a unit on fish. It forces students to use cognitive thinking skills that will expand their language through a content approach.
Sequence
Choice
Description
This is an example of how description can be taught to students. This can be done by asking leading questions that forces students to describe the fish's body by more than obvious descriptive words.
Evaluation
Classification
Principles
This is an example of evaluation - students have to decide how each item will affect the fish's habitat.
This is an activity that asks students to decide the best way to set up an aquarium that would ensure a fish's survival for life through the knowledge framework of sequence.
This an example of how to engage with fish by using the knowledge framework of principle, as it asks students what happened, cause and effect of what happened and final outcomes on how a fish breathes in water.
Cambourne's Conditions of learning foster an environment in which students are engaged in content which will allow them to acquire a second language. The conditions are interdependent of one another and promote a learning environment in which students feel comfortable taking risks with literacy and language.
This is an example of choice that gives students options of the procedure that follows. This knowledge framework encourages students to think of the dilemmas and confrontations of their actions.
Slide 4: Introduction
Slide 5 - 6: Glossary
Slide 7 - 15: Six Principles Effective Second Language Learning
Slide 16 - 27: The Knowledge Framework: Language and Content Approach
Slide 28 - 33: Why use a Language and Content Approach
Slide 34 - 42: Strategies to incorporate Language and Content
Slide 43 - 44: Benefits and Challenges
Slide 45 - 54: Lesson Planning using the Knowledge Framework
Slide 55: The B.C. Curriculum
Slide 56: Conclusion
Slide 57 - 58: Annotated Bibliography

The Knowledge Framework (Mohan, 1986) proves to be an effective integrative approach that connects language learning and content, which ultimately connects learners with the world.
Utilizing interactive teaching strategies progressively relates language to the community and helps students connect their knowledge to the world
—thus, it proves to support the "big ideas" of the new B.C. curriculum. By using the Knowledge Framework, students can
understand how to learn with
purpose
in a
meaningful way
.
Although we found helpful research on this approach, we acknowledge that learning language can take many years to learn; therefore, teachers cannot expect quick competence right away. If the ultimate goal is to engage students through language and content by connecting with the world, we can also guide them to be socially responsible, active, and informed citizens.

Fish: Seen through the Knowledge Framework

Source: Hurren. Patti (1990), Moberly Elementary, A Fish For A Pet, One Unit in the Series Themes and Topics for Intermediate I Classrooms, 1-45
Source: Hurren. Patti (1990), Moberly Elementary, A Fish For A Pet, One Unit in the Series Themes and Topics for Intermediate I Classrooms, 1-45
Source: Hurren. Patti (1990), Moberly Elementary, A Fish For A Pet, One Unit in the Series Themes and Topics for Intermediate I Classrooms, 1-45
Source: Hurren. Patti (1990), Moberly Elementary, A Fish For A Pet, One Unit in the Series Themes and Topics for Intermediate I Classrooms, 1-45
Source: Hurren. Patti (1990), Moberly Elementary, A Fish For A Pet, One Unit in the Series Themes and Topics for Intermediate I Classrooms, 1-45
Source: Hurren. Patti (1990), Moberly Elementary, A Fish For A Pet, One Unit in the Series Themes and Topics for Intermediate I Classrooms, 1-45
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