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Kohlberg vs. Gilligan
Transcript of Kohlberg vs. Gilligan
Piaget: Teaching Strategies Thank you for your attention! Kohlberg Biographies Pros & Cons Gilligan Piaget After highschool, Lawrence left for Israel working on a freighter bringing refugees to Israel. Lawrence Kohlberg was born in Bronxville, Ny in 1927. For highschool he attended an expensive private school for bright students called Andover Academy in Massachusetts. When Israel became a nation in 1948, Kohlberg attended the University of Chicago and gradtuated in one year with a major in Psychology. After getting his graduate degree, he became interested in Paiget's work on moral issues and began interviewing children based on Piaget's studies. Kohlberg went on to teach at the University of Chicago from 1962 until 1960 when he left to teach at Harvard University where he worked until his death at the age of 60. Jean Piaget was born in 1896 in Switzerland and published his first paper on biology at the age of ten years old. Interesting fact: Piaget actually graduated with a degree in Zoology, nothing to do with psychology. When Piaget went to France he began studying philosophy and psychology there where his interest in those subjects began. He wrote 60 books and hundreds of articles which won him many awards and citations. He also established the International Center of Genetic Epistemology. Carol Gilligan was born in 1936 and attended Harvard University where she studied human development under Erik Erikson and Lawrence Kohlberg (both are theorists we learned about in this course). While Gilligan studied under Kohlberg, she noticed that Piaget's moral development theory was based on studies of male subjects, not females. Gilligan published "A Different Voice" in 1982 which was a book about her studies on young girls. Her book proved that men and women see justice and moral issues differently. Gilligan has written several books evaluating female behavior in dilemmas and currently teaches at New York University and still does her part in educational research. Similarities & Differences Piaget Kohlberg Gilligan Based around the moral development of humans On
Development Presented By: Jessica Gerwig
Diana Polche Koblberg •Can be tested and studied •Real life decisions Vs. Hypothetical situations •Can offer a structure to having “just communities” •Can find out where someone is in their stages of moral development •Helps provide “benchmarks” to where people might be in their moral development stages based on where they come from and their life situations that they have experienced. Pros Cons •Gender differences Cultural Differences Religious Differences Pros •Prevalent in education reform Cons Piaget Used real-life situations •Discovered that kids learn morality when being placed in groups, having to deal with others and use decision-making and problem-solving skills. •Gender was not a main factor •Some do not think moral development should be taught in schools •Mainly used his 3 children and small samples •Children that were used were only from high-class or well-educated families •Does not take into consideration outside environmental factors to a child’s development process Cons Pros Gilligan •Showed that women and men think and act differently •Helped to prove the realization that girls life experiences are
different •Shows there is no one right answer when facing dilemmas and that there is always a consideration in each gender. •Focused mainly on girls •Particular situations she used were not relative to fit men’s situations or dilemmas. •Small sample sizes •Focused on gender bias’ instead of allowing each person to be looked upon as an individual. Moral reasoning develops in set stages Development and rationale similar for men and women Change in moral reasoning based on change in cognitive process higher levels of development show concersn for universal rules and principles Moral stages are unclear Development and rationale different for men and women Change in moral reasoning based on changes in relational thinking Higher levels of development for women not as rule oriented About cognitive development from birth to adult Ephasizes on how people generally develop their
way of thinking Teaching strategies for using Kohlberg’s theory could
be applied in classroom management. Making the children aware
that their negative actions come with punishment and their positive actions come with rewards. The children’s morality
whether positive or negative could be applied to Kohlberg’s
levels of morality. Kohlberg Applying Gilligan’s moral development in the
classroom would be suggested during group time while
the students are working together, as the teacher
to be aware of how the girls are working compared
to the boys. Gilligan A more modern way to apply Piaget in the
classroom would be to play cognitive games
and allowing students to learn from their peers
and their own mistakes. Piaget Moral development was a process in which thought
was built on moral concepts. indicated that what we learn comes from discovery of moral principles. He recognized that children learn morality best
by having to deal with others in groups extended Piaget's work in
cognitive reasoning into
adolescence and adulthood. Kohlberg Gilligan Piaget They both studied one sex, then branched out to both genders.