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The Effects of the Temperature of Amylase on the Breakdown of Starch

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Janell Tanner

on 20 December 2013

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Transcript of The Effects of the Temperature of Amylase on the Breakdown of Starch

Reminder:

Starches
Complex carbohydrates that store energy
Contains amylose, the substrate in which the enzyme amylase attaches to, to breakdown starch.
What is the Purpose?
At what temperature is amylase more effective at digesting starch?
Hypothesis
If you place amylase at 37 degrees Celsius, then it will more effectively digest the starch than the amylase at any other temperature.
The Effects of the Temperature of Amylase on the Breakdown of Starch
Enzymes
protein catalysts that speed up chemical reactions
chemical reactions take place at the active site
temperature at which enzymes work best!
ALL enzymes have an optimum temperature
Independent Variable: Temperature of Amylase
Dependent Variable: Digestion of Starch
Iodine Test
Pure amylase + iodine (negative)
Starch + iodine (positive)


Controls
Benedict’s Test
Glucose + Benedict’s solution (positive)
Maltose + Benedict’s solution (positive)
Sucrose + Benedict’s solution (negative)


0.2% starch
Amount of iodine
Amount of Benedict’s solution
0.3% amylase

Constants


• 0.3% amylase solution (8 mL)
• 0.2% starch solution (40 mL)
• 150 mL beaker
• Watch glasses
• Iodine solution
• Benedict’s solution
• 7 test tubes
• Disposable pipettes
• Thermometer
• Hot plates
• Red plastic cups
• Ice
• 2 30 mL beaker
• 250 mL beaker
• 25 mL graduated cylinder

Materials
Procedure
4 test tubes were gathered
Each test tube was filled with a pipette full of amylase
Each test tube was placed at its desired temperature for 5 Minutes
After the 5 minutes passed then a pipette full of starch was added to each test tube
a drop of the solution from each test tube was placed on its individual watch glass
The test tubes still containing starch we placed at the temperatures again for another five minutes
Iodine Test
Procedure Continued....
the resulting test tubes from the iodine test were used during the Benedict's test
3 additional test tubes were gathered
All of the test tubes were placed in a water bath for about 15 minutes
Benedict's Test
Results
Table 1: Testing for the Presence of Starch when the Amylase + Starch is Placed at Different Temperatures
Figure 1: Color Intensity of the Starch/Amylase during the Benedict’s Test at the Different Temperatures
Table 2: Description of the Colors Each Variable Turned and Their Color Intensity
Sources of Error
during the procedure, the mistake of mixing the starch to amylase and placing the mixture at all the different temperature was made. This would have had a great effect on the results of our experiment because when the amylase and starch were mixed together before the amylase was allowed to sit at the desired temperatures, this was giving amylase time to have already broken down the starch. This would’ve made the results difficult to comprehend because it would’ve been hard to tell at what time the starch was actually broken down. Another source of error was that we didn’t label the test tubes during our benedicts test, therefore we didn’t know what test tubes were placed at which temperatures. This would’ve affected the data because we would’ve been confused as to which test tubes at which temperatures were positive or negative
Discussion
The optimal temperature is the temperature in which the enzyme works best. When looking at the results, the highest peak would be the optimal temperature. The optimal temperature of amylase would be 87°C because that’s the degree at which starch was broken down the fastest. Enzymes inside the body are said to function better at the optimal temperature of 37˚C, so the fact that our enzyme functioned better at 87˚C doesn’t support that. However, different enzymes function at different temperatures so it is possible that this enzyme can function at this temperature. Color intensity (Graph 1) relates to the controls for the Benedict’s test. Since the amylase plus starch at the temperatures of 4˚C, 25˚C, 37˚C were at zero, the color blue, this means there were no simple sugars present during Benedict’s test. At 87˚C, the color intensity was not high enough the test positive for simple sugars (10), but it does mean that that something else was present at the temperature. What else was present in the 87˚C test tube is unknown based on the experiment we conducted, but with additional controls this could be found out during further experimentation.
Conclusion
The purpose was to study the effect of temperature of enzyme functioning. The major finding was that at 87°C the amylase broke down the starch the fastest. The other temperatures (4°C, 25°C, 37°C) didn’t break down starch until 10 minutes while 87°C broke down starch in 5 minutes. Our hypothesis, if amylase is used at 37°C, then it would more effectively to break down starch than amylase at any other temperature, was not supported. The unexpected result was that 87°C was more effective to break down starch. For future directions, we would label all materials before we start to proceed with the experiment.
Works Cited
• “What is the function of amylase,” (2003), Retrieved from
http://m.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-function-of-amylase.htm
• “AS- module 1,” (October 2005), Retrieved From
www.biologymad.com/resources/Ch%204%20-%20Enzymes.pdf

By: Janell Tanner and Shandrea Lockhart
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