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Developmental Psychology

Psychology 201: The Standard Deviations
by

Christina ONeil

on 28 September 2015

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Transcript of Developmental Psychology

Importance of Contact
Introduction:
As one holds a responsibility of mentoring and teaching young children, it is best to understand a child’s stages of development and levels of understanding based on a variety of circumstances; to foster a positive impact on their existence.

To understand some basic concepts in Developmental Psychology; to better teach and associate with children and their parents.
Secure and Insecure Attachment

Theory of Mind
"Attachment bond is a powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their caregivers." (Myers, 2015, p.195)
Sensorimotor stage: Object Permanence
"The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived." (Myers, 2015, p.188)
"People's ideas about their own and others' mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, perspectives, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict." (Myers, 2015, p.191)
Concrete and Formal Operational Stage
"By mentoring children and giving them new words, parents and others provide a temporary scaffold from which children can step to higher levels of thinking." (Myers, 2015, p.191)
Self-Concept

“By the end of childhood, at about age 12, most children have developed a self-concept—an understanding and assessment of who they are” (Myers, 2015, p. 201)

Children begin to foster a concept of self early on. As they enter into school-age, the concepts attached become more detailed and fine-tuned.

A child with a developed self-concept that is positive tends to look at the world in a positive light. A negative self-concept can enable a child to perceive the world around them negatively as well.
Understanding Basic Concepts in Developmental Psychology



"Securely attached children display the development of basic trust, which is a sense that the world is predictable and reliable." (Myers, 2015, p.199)
By: The Standard Deviations, Inc.
Learning Objectives:
Stranger Anxiety
Parenting Styles
for Day Care Facilities
Importance of Contact
Sensorimotor stage: Object Permanence
Stranger Anxiety
Secure and Insecure Attachment
Theory of Mind
Self-Concept
Concrete and Formal Operational Stage
Parenting Styles
Secure attachment is a result of a child receiving attentive care from their caregiver, or parent. A child that is able to enjoy the environment of daycare, for example, with their parent present but is distressed when he/she leaves, and excited when he/she returns, is more likely to be raised in a trusting environment where their needs are met.
Secure Attachment
Insecure Attachment
An infant will most often be seen as clingy or anxious when placed in an unfamiliar space, alternative to the case of a secure attachment where they would explore their surroundings. It has been recorded that these anxious and inconsolable children can often be a result of a lack of trust in the home environment. The child's needs and wants are often not top priority.
Harry and Margaret Harlow conducted an experiment with infant monkeys and developed this theory based off of their observations.
They found that upon removal of a cheesecloth blanket, that was once comforting them, the monkeys became distressed. They had formed an attachment to the blanket.
As monkeys need nourishment from warmth, comfort and care, so do human babies.
Take away
Create an environment of nourishment and comfort. Replicate the nurturing you would expect to give your own children.
Judgement on a parent should not be passed if an insecure attachment is noticed, but it is vital to be attentive to any event of child neglect.
Take away
Piaget's Discovery
Before the age of six months, infants lack a sense that objects still exist even if out of sight.
At eight months of age, the ability for memory of things no longer seen begins to develop.
Six Sub Stages of the Sensorimotor Period
1st: Reflex acts:
innate in a newborn infant, occurs in the first month of life. The sucking reflex, for example, is a form of response to external stimuli.
2nd: Primary Circular Reactions:
the repeating of pleasurable actions is seen in infants from one to four months of age. For example, wiggling toes, or incessant movements.
3rd: Secondary Circular Reactions:
similar to the primary, but includes the repeated pleasurable actions with an object, such as a rattle. This stage can last four to eight months.
4th: Coordinating secondary actions:
the knowledge attained during the previous stages are put to test. For example, the combining of movement against different objects that were attained in the earlier months. This stage occurs from eight to twelve months of age.
5th: Tertiary circular reactions:
well thought out adaptations to certain situations. In essence, the back and forth repeated actions, done with intentionality.
6th: Symbolic thought:
transitional to preoperational stage of cognitive development. The memory retention of objects that aren't physically present.
relating to Object Permanence
Take away
Recognize the development and transition of sensory stages of development in an infant. Test the infant's abilities under controlled conditions.
Concrete
"Children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events." (Myers, 2015, p. 191)
From the age of seven to eleven, children begin to understand the physical attributes change in form.

Piaget believed children comprehend mathematical conversions and transformations.

These theories of cognitive development were countered by Lev Vygotsky in the use of a child's inner speech and interactions with the social environment exposed to them.


Our reasoning expands from the concrete to the abstract through experience and thought processes.

As children age they develop the ability to form predictions and form realistic consequences.

Systematic reasoning begins here.

These theories of cognitive development were countered by Lev Vygotsky in the use of a child's inner speech and interactions with the social environment exposed to them.
Formal Operational
"Another stage of cognitive development where children begin to think logically about abstract concepts." (Myers, 2015, p. 191)
Take away
Recognize the stages of cognitive development and educate parents on the development of their children in relation to these coming stages.
"Stranger anxiety is the fear that infants commonly display, beginning by about eight months of age." (Myers, 2015, p. 195)
"Stranger, Danger!"
Acting as a protection mechanism, children begin to seemingly form opinions of unknown individuals and may become distressed if they deduce a threat. This occurrence begins around eight months of age.

It is a positive developmental phenomena that the baby develops to protect itself from strangers.

Parents should not be concerned about a child's crying and attachment when meeting unfamiliar people. It means that the child is developing within the sensorimotor stage and is able to recognize that faces are unfamiliar.

Take away
Be cognizant of changes occurring around eight months of age when other teachers, parents, or facilitators interact with infants. Explain to uneducated personnel about the "stranger anxiety" stage in development.
A child's onset of cognition to another person's beliefs or perceptions come early, as early as seven months, but develop through time (age 3, 4, 5).

Children with
autism spectrum disorder
and children who are deaf have exhibited similar difficulties in understanding a person's state of mind in a controlled setting. One could infer that inflection in a person's voice or how something is spoken or processed in speech could exhibit a point of view or belief.
Take away
Understand the development of beliefs and perceptions, and don't take a child's misconception personally. Their cognition of a certain perspective may not yet be developed.
Take away
Encourage infants, toddlers, and young children to develop a positive self concept early. Positively affirm them, and educate parents on the importance of doing the same.
Understanding how parents interact with their children allows workers to more effectively communicate strengths and needs. If a parent feels that their particular concerns and goals are being taken into consideration, it leads to a friendlier work relationship. This trickles down to the children. If they witness their parents in tense conversations with employees, it may detract from the feeling of a safe environment. Conversely, a relaxed and happy parent sends a signal that all is well.
Authoritarian:
parents that seem to exude a sense of expectation to
instant willing obedience
at all times. They are unwavering in their requests are not open to discussions primarily with their children.

Permissive:
appear lackadaisical and disheveled in their parenting approach. They don't impose rules and regulations and don't expect adherence to demands. They may be unwilling to set boundaries and unwilling to engage in conversation with their children.

Authoritative:
they contend with their children and expect demands. Conversations and encouragement of speech is sometimes initiated. They are willing to enter into a unobstructed deliberation when faced with controversy.

Uninvolved:
parents are noticed to tend to a child's basic needs in most cases, but are generally detached from their emotional and mental connections on a deeper level. Seldom with this style, there may be more obvious signs of child neglect.
"Parenting styles are based on four measurements...disciplinary strategies, warmth and nurturance, communication styles, and expectations of maturity and control." (Cherry, n.d.)
Take away
Conclusion:


A child's development is viewed through multiple facets of theories, stages, and viewpoints. Creating a safe, positive, and nurturing environment that is built upon an understanding of these basics will ease the transitions seen in a developing child and create a space that is well prepared for life's alternate routes.
Works cited
Cherry, Kendra. (n.d.)
Parenting Styles: The Four Styles of Parenting
. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/parenting-style.htm

McLeod, S. A. (2015). Sensorimotor Stage. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/sensorimotor.html

Myers, D. G., & DeWall, C. N. (2015). Psychology (11th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Jean Piaget pioneered ways of discovery for a child's developmental cognition of life
Full transcript