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AP Psych Chapter 7

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Janet Neyer

on 27 January 2016

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Transcript of AP Psych Chapter 7

Chapter 7
States of Consciousness
Circadian Rhythm
the biological clock
regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle, such as of wakefulness and body temperature
REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
recurring sleep stage
vivid dreams
“paradoxical sleep”
muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active
Sleep Deprivation
Effects of Sleep Loss
impaired concentration
depressed immune system
greater vulnerability to accidents
Sleep Disorders
Sleep Apnea
Night Terrors
persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
uncontrollable sleep attacks
temporary cessation of breathing
high arousal- appearance of being terrified
usually occurs during Stage 4
Sigmund Freud
The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
Dreams as wish fulfillment
Dreams discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings.
Manifest Content
- remembered story line
Latent Content
- underlying meaning
Other Dream Theories...
Information Processing
- Dreams help facilitate memories.
Physiological Function
- Dreams provide the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation (preserving neural pathways).
Activation-Synthesis Theory
- Dreams are the brain's attempt to make sense of neural activity in the pons.
John Hobson's theory
What's in a Dream?
60 Minutes: The Science of Sleep
REM Rebound
After a loss of REM sleep, the brain/body spend more time in REM sleep the following night.
a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
Posthypnotic Amnesia
supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis
induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion
Posthypnotic Suggestion
suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized
used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors
Hypnosis as Divided Consciousness - Ernest Hilgard
a split in consciousness allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
a "hidden observer" is passively aware of what happens during hypnosis
Hypnosis as Social Phenomenon
like actors caught up in roles, people behave as expected
Orne & Evans (1965) found that unhypnotized subjects told to pretend performed the same acts as hypnotized ones
Facts and Falsehoods
Can hypnosis...
...enable people to retrieve memories?
...force people to act against their will?
...alleviate pain?
...be used therapuetically
(smoking, obesity, drug addiction)?
...work on anyone?
Drugs and Consciousness
diminishing effect with regular use
discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
Physical Dependence
physiological need for a drug
marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
Psychological Dependence
a psychological need to use a drug
for example, to relieve negative emotions
Depressants Stimulants Hallucinogens
Near-Death Experiences
typically characterized by
replay of old memories
out-of-body sensations
visions of tunnels or of bright lights
One theory...
The brain manufactures the near-death experience
Same experience is replicated by depleting oxygen, stimulating temporal lobe, some seizures in brain
But others disagree...
People who have experienced both hallucinations and near-death experiences deny they are hallucinations.
Which brings us to the central question...
mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
Jump to 11:40.
Episode 14
The Mind:
Hidden and Divided
Full transcript