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Active Procrastination Scale

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Jennifer Pause

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Active Procrastination Scale

Procrastination Scale
What is Procrastination?
Most researchers have defined procrastination along pessimistic behavioural lines with negative outcomes, especially among students
Chu & Choi have demonstrated that not all procrastination behaviours are harmful

Passive Procrastination:
Traditional procrastinators who postpone tasks until last minute because of an inability to make decisions to act in a timely manner.

Active Procrastination:
Make intentional decisions to procrastinate, using their strong motivation under timed pressure and are able to complete tasks before deadlines and achieve satisfactory results.

We investigated
Chu & Choi
The two groups differ in their ability to use time, GPA, stress, depression, time management, organizational skills, critical thinking and control of effort.
Intially conceptualized active procrastination as:
Preference for time pressure
Intentional decision to procrastinate
Ability to meet deadlines
Satisfaction with outcome
Developing Our Construct
Divided items among categories in relation to procrastination, in order to minimize duplicate items and grasp different angles and criteria for procrastination
Time management
Positive life satisfaction
Construct Analysis
30 participants in Personality and Adjustment
Our item pool consisted of 50 items, with 25 of them being reverse items
We added a
procrastination scale
by Choi and Moran (2009) as a validity check for our own scale (Cronbachs aplha of .815 , N=15)
We used a
extraversion scale
the short-form revised Eysenck personality questionnaire since extraversion was associated with active procrastination (Cronbachs alpha of .650, N=12)
We also used an
achievement motivation scale
, since active procrastination is associated with positive life satisfaction and procrastination stems from motivation (Cronbachs alpha of .538, N=14)
4 point Likert scale (
Strongly Disagree =1, Disagree =2, Agree =3, & Strongly Agree=4)
After conducting factor analysis, we eliminated 43 items
Anything lower than .4 correlation value was eliminated
After 3 reliability checks, we ended up with 6 items
Significant correlation between our procrastination scale and the procrastination validity scale
We got a
pearson correlation of .374
, showing we have a valid construct
Our scale also significantly correlated with the achievement motivation scale
We got a
pearson correlation of .374
There was no correlation between our scale and extraversion
Further Research...
One aspect of our scale that is interesting, is that there are more reverse questions than non-reversed. This does not seem to be an issue, since it still assess procrastination, just in reverse format.
For further research on active procrastination, we could add more non-reversed items to this final scale to have more questions that explicitly measure procrastination, and do another factor analysis
larger item pool may add to a greater number of non-reversed items and a larger final scale
Procrastination Scale
Final Items
I avoid leaving assignments and homework to the last minute (R)

I would prefer planning ahead and working on one assignment at a time (R)

I put homework before friends and social gatherings (R)

I do not seek approval from other people in everything that I do

Minor setbacks frustrate me and reduce my motivation (R)

I tend to worry about things I have no control over (R)

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scale for active procrastination. Based on what was previously founded by Chu & Choi and Choi & Moran, our construct was based on their findings of active procrastination and personality. After factor analysis, reliability and validity checks, our scale was found to be significantly correlated with validity check scale, and had a strong Cronbach's Alpha, making it both reliable and valid. Whether it is a usable scale and clinically significant is a concern to which would need further investigation.
Chu & Choi
Choi & Moran
Define the four dimensions for active procrastination
Preference for Pressure
: time pressure can create feeling of challenge and increase motivation
Intentional Decision to Procrastinate:
pre-plan task activities in an organized that do not adhere to a strict schedule
Ability to Meet Deadlines:
properly estimate minimum amount of time to finish a task - use more task-oriented coping
Outcome Satisfaction
: they effectively and efficiently use their time, they successfully complete tasks, achieving a rewarding outcome
Developed 12 item scale that supports their new construction of procrastination
Active procrastination was found to be associated with:
Time management
Positive life satisfaction
Chu & Choi “introduced a novel idea for the area of procrastination research: the notion that delaying one’s work can actually be helpful and relate to positive characteristics. Researchers have studied that idea very little, and it is worthy of further investigation”
Procrastination Scale had an overall Cronbach's Alpha of .825
Discussion Questions
Do you think that there are two types of procrastinators?

What personality traits (ie. Big five) do you think would be associated with active procrastination?

What would you have changed or added to the item pool to avoid a mostly reversed item construct?

Do you feel that the reversed item construct can still adequately assess active procrastination?
We hypothesize that based on what was found by Chu & Choi, and their concept on active procrastination, our scale will effectively measure active procrastination
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