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Copy of Copy of physiological and psyological response to injury

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Helen Tocknell

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of physiological and psyological response to injury

Healing process
Physiological & Psychological response to injury.
Grade 3 sprain
The symptoms of grade 3 sprains of the ankle
The symptoms of a common grade 3 sprain is the complete tear of the talo-fibular ligament from the talus or fibula
signs of grade 3 sprains of the ankle is when the ankle is extremely inverted or extreme rolling outward movement of the ankle
The signs of grade 3 sprain of the ankle
The signs of a grade 3 sprains is severe swelling
which then causes intermuscular haematoma.
Also another symptom of grade 3 sprains is being incapable to place pressure on the ankle as well as a giving-way feeling
Primary damage response
Imflammation
Inflammation - Is how the body reacts to an infection or injury by swelling to protect the area where the damage had occured.
When tissue is damaged this triggers primary damage, this results in the damaged cells releasing their contents into the surrounding area of the injury causing phagocytes and leukocyte to consume them to reduce the amount of bacteria and foreign substances, then inflammatory response begins by plasma leaking from blood vessels causing it to swell to protect the area injured.
Pain
Pain - Is caused when something in the body changes severely, such as a stubbed toe the stimuli becomes damaged triggering the afferent nerve fibres to send electrical impules to the CNS to the brain resulting in pain messages.
pain is caused by when the inflammation begins, by oedema transports concentration of protein and fibringen to the ankle, to protect the area of injury but these chemical then irritate the neuroreceptors, which then sends pain messages to the brain.
Grade 3 sprain recovery
Remodelling Process
Analysis
Anger
Depression
Anxiety
Analysis
Motivation
The healing process of a grade 3 sprained ankle begins with the local edema (swelling) around the joint due to the capillaries vasodilating to enable plasma from the capillaries to be leaked causing the platelets as well as blood proteins within the plasma being able to protect and clott the damaged tissue causing swelling.

After the intial swelling of the ankle the leaked blood proteins from the vasodilated capillaries begin the process of haematomas causing the ankle to become discoloured.

For a grade 3 sprain the blood platelets begin the healing of the ligament by forming a mesh to help the healing, then within the blood clott are fibroblastic fibres which multiply rapidly and form type 3 collegan tissue, the strongest type of collagen and forms to heal the ligament
The healing of a grade 3 sprained ankle takes up to 6-12 weeks to heel due to the ligements having no blood supply making it take longer to heal
Grade 3 sprain remodelling
After the formation of type 3 collagen tissue that begin to heal the tear of the ligament by remodelling the collagen tissue forms to a similar tissue before the injury so it can cope with the stress placed on it before the injury. Type 3 forms the basis of repair but then becomes replaced by type 1 to increase the ligaments scar tissues strength
For the remodelling process to begin the connective tissue connects to the muscle fibres by intercellur material which then enables type 3 collagen to be formed
Haemotoma forms clotted blood within the tissue causing the vessels not being able to flow properly this means that new vessels need to be formed at the injured area this is known as capillarization, which is were collagen helps form new capillaries so blood can continue to flow to the area and begin the remodelling process by delivering the nutrients and fibres required.
What is anger?
Anger - is a feeling of annoyence, displeasure or hostility towards something or someone E.g an athlete goes in for a tackle then get injured and becomes angry at themselves for not preparing properly or at the other person for causing the injury
Signs of anger:
Unconsious tensing of the muscles
Sweating, feeling hot or cold
Release of adreneline creating a surge of power
Increased heart rate
Symptoms of anger:
Explosive outbursts towards other people or random acts
Exaggareted hostility towards unimportant irritants
Social withdrawls due to anger
Verbal abusive language towards other peopl or objects
How is anger triggered?
what is depression?
Depression - Is a condition of mental disturbance usually by lack of energy, but can also be caused by severe despondency and dejection which then forms feelings of hopelessness and inadquecy
Signs and symptoms
Physiological symptoms
Continous low mood
feeling helpless or hopeless
feel tearful
irratable and intolerant of others
no motivation
no interest
feel anxious
Physical symptoms
moveing/speeking slower then usual
different appetite increase or decrease
unexplained aches & pains
disturbed sleep
social signs
Not doing well or interest in work
taking less time in social activities
avoiding contact with friends and family
How is depression triggered?
Anger can be triggered if a person beleived they'd have been wronged/cheated or offended. A sporting example would be if a player went into a tackle that they demed to be safe but the Refere red carded them for it. An example of this would be sam warburton in the 2011 rugby worl cup against france. Where he was beleived to have speared tackled vincent clerc which could severely injure a player by spearing their head and body into the ground, but was red carded which
people still debate if it deserved a red card.
How different people deal with anger?
Depression can be triggerd by a player becoming injured and not being able to play sports for a time, leading them to feel isolated and alone and not be able to share their feelings because its not stereotyical of sportsment to look weak and vulnerable.
How do people deal with depression?
What is anxiety
Anxiety - Is a feeling of worrying and unease usually brought on by an event in which the outcome is uncertain. Also can be brought on by wanting to do something accompanied by unease.
What are the signs an symptoms?
Signs
Symptoms
Restlessness
Sense of dread
Feeling on edge
Difficulty concentrating
Irritability
Impatience
Easily distracted
Dizziness
Drowsiness
Irregular heart beat
Shortness of Breath
Excessive sweating
Trouble staying asleep
How is Anxiety triggerd?
Anxiety can be triggerd by sports people placing them self under so much pressure, making them self doubt themselves before they perform, resulting in them holding in their feelings making their anxiety levels increasing and effecting their performance
How do people deal with anxiety?
What is motivation?
Motivation - Is when someone has the desire/determination to do something, and behave in a different way by being more determind to do something
What can we do with athletes to enhance their motivation?
By
Bethany Wood
Goal Setting
To enhance an athletes motivation would be to set them goals in which they would meet over a certain period of time, these goals would help the athlete understand their commitment to the sport, but also improve their performance which would improve their attitude towards their sport. By setting goals they can have aims for short, medium and long term achievments/goals
What is goal setting
Goal setting - Is establishing specific goals which are achievable in different amount of times wheather is 3 weeks to 3 months.
The Short, Medium and Long term goals for a grade 3 sprained ankle:
Short - A short term goal for a grade 3 sprained ankle would be fore the ligament to heal which takes atleast 6-8 weeks to heal by placing it in a brace so it makes it easier for the ligament to heal.
Medium 16weeks - Be able to manoeuver the ankle in physical therapy, not to a mass extent just enough so the person can keep improving without pushing themselves to much
Long 24 weeks - To be able to place pressure on the ankle and gradually be able to have full use of the ankle due to the ligaments being torn.
S,M,A,R,T
S - To be able to put pressure on the ankle
Another way to keep the athlete motivated would to keep them included in team events by being on the sidelines so there still involved and remaining positive
M - By keeping the ankle from being placed under stress
A - By keeping the ankle secure in a brace
R- By the person going th physical therapy
T - over a period of 24 weeks to make sure the ligaments repaired.
What helps the process?
When the sprained ankle is begining to heal it is helped by RICE - rest, ice, compression and elevation to help control the swelling of the injury.
Other things that can help the healing process is correct foods giving the correct nutrients to the injured area such as proteins to repair tissue damage.
What doesn't help the process?
People in sport deal with anger in different ways one can be to discuss why they are angry and felt wronged with their team mates or coach who would be able to help them work through there anger. Another way to to take out their anger in physical activity by taking it out on weights or a punch bag getting rid of their agression
Dealing with depression is more complicated and dependant on the person, it could be a simple fix of discussing it with team members or coaches, but it could be more complicated and they would have to discuss it with a therapist to try and deep further into what is causing their depression. The most serious way to deal with depression is to induse medical therapy by taking medicines to help with their depression
To deal with anxiety the most complete way is to deal with what is causing the anxiety such as a coach putting to much pressure on a player, they could deal with this by discussing why the coach is putting so much pressure on that player and try to get the same results the coach wants but without placing pressure on the player
Comparing different injuries
Comparing sprains to fractures they have very different healing processes a grade 3 sprain can take up to 8 weeks for the ligament to heal whereas a compound fracture takes up to 18 months to heal this is due to the fracture requiring high amount of calcium to heal the bone as well as needing to be held in place so the bones can be aligned correctly whereas sprains only need collegen and blood to heal and a brace just to keep the ankle secure to make sure it comfortable.
Vinnie Jones
Andrew flintoff
Cause of depression was from severe self doubt. Who couldn't talk to their team mates due to being the leader and not being able to show signs of struggling which would have been a sign of weakness by the england captain
Cause of depression was the feel of lack of self worth, he couldn't talk about because being a football in the 1980-90s and being depressed would have been a sign of weakness and not manly enough to be a sportmen, because depression in sport wasn't recognised.
Overall....
Recognising depression, anxiety in sport is only a recent discovery that sports people especially men even suffer from it. comparing Vinnie jones to Andrew flintoff their are differences in the 1980-90 footballers where beleived to be super confident and have no self doubt whereas pressure from the public and team mate in both cases leads to severe pressure put on players resulting them always not to please everyone else but not focusing on themselves enough to deal with the problems their facing.
Even though movement is encouraged to help heal the sprained ankle going out of controlled movements doesn't heal the ankle because it's straining the work of the healing process such as the formation of the collagen mesh on the ligaments
Primary response
Damaged cells
Inflammatory response
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