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Outcome 2 S4 Emergency procedures
Transcript of Outcome 2 S4 Emergency procedures
A first aider is someone who is trained in administering first aid.There are some practical things that we can do to prevent injury and discomfort.
There is no point at which electricity is safe and therefore should always be treated with respect When someone is receiving an electric shock, the power should be turned off or the person removed from the source using insulated material.
To be able to administer emergency first aid in the form of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and to be able to put some one into the recovery position is essential .
To reduce the risk of electric shock when working with portable tools etc they should be battery operated or run from a reduced voltage supply. Emergency Evacuation Procedures There is a duty on the employer or person responsible for the site to; Prevent injury from fire, explosions, flooding or substances liable to asphyxiate.
Provide clear, properly signed emergency escape routes.
Set up appropriate emergency procedure with designated people.
Make sure that everyone is familiar with the procedures and have those procedures tested at various intervals.
Provide suitable and sufficient fire-fighting equipment and fire alarm systems.Maintain the equipment and train people who need to use it.
Provide the necessary signs to show where the equipment is. Fire and Fire Precautions Remove any one of these and the fire will go out Fire . Classes of Fire Types of Fire Extinguishers Causes of fire The main causes of fire on construction sites are:
materials being cut, sanded etc. into a form that is more readily combustible
loose materials and packing on site
poor storage of gases
tanks with flammable residue
poor waste disposal
buried gas and electrical lines
poorly maintained plant and equipment
poor welding and cutting
overloaded electrical equipment
damaged cables, incorrect protective devices or bypassed safety systems
accumulation of rubbish against electrical equipment
overheating of coiled cables
petrol used to accelerate a bonfire
arson. Fire Spread Convection – hot air rises and circulates. This draws in cool oxygen rich air fuelling the fire. The heat is not enough to cause the substance to spontaneously combust.
Conduction - a fire next to a wall will allow heat to be conducted through a wall.
Radiation – heat waves from the surface of a material become very hot and this can be sufficient to cause instantaneous combustion.
In addition we have
Direct burning – where combustible materials come in contact with the flames. Smoke It can kill when it is breathed in.
It can kill by causing confusion and loss of sense of direction on escaping from a fire. Fire Escape People should be able to escape from a building within three minutes. This will take into account stairs.
Fire drills should be carried out to ensure that people can escape within the time frame. Fire Prevention There are five main hazards created by fire;
Lack of oxygen
Flames and heat
Gaseous combustion products
Structural failure of the building Aims and objectives
State what should be done in the event of an emergency alarm sounding
explain how fire is caused and how it spreads
explain how fire can be prevented
review the use of fire fighting equipment. Heat Fuel Oxygen The Triangle of Fire For a fire to occur there needs to be three things.
Oxygen The sources of fuel are:
Solids – wood, paper, card, plastics, rubber etc.
Liquids – paint, varnish, thinners, petrol, diesel, fat oil etc.
Gases – acetylene, butane, propane, hydrogen etc. The sources of ignition are: Naked flames External sparks Internal sparks Hot surfaces Static electricity. Classes of Fire In terms of the sources of ignition 25 % of fires are caused by cooking appliances and electrical equipment. Fire is a heat source and heat is transmitted in three ways Smoke spreads by rising and when its upward path is blocked it spreads out. Smoke is a killer! Care must be taken to reduce the risk of fire
Keep work areas clean and free from combustible materials.
Plant and equipment regularly cleaned, maintained and inspected.
Electrical systems operating correctly.
Combustible materials such as petrol and gas canisters stored away from sources of ignition. People must be able to escape quickly
People need to be able to turn away from a fire as they escape.
If a single-direction escape route is a corridor then additional fire barriers will be needed.
Stairs acts as chimneys and will require fire barriers.
When an alarm sounds people should
Leave there work but turn off electrical items.
Lock the doors, where a fire does not exist, as they leave the room.
Leave the building by the shortest possible safe route.
Assemble at a meeting point well away from the building Only return when the all clear is given.