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Managing Weight and Body Composition

Managing Your Weight
by

Michelle Hiett

on 2 February 2011

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Transcript of Managing Weight and Body Composition

Managing Weight and Body Composition Chapter 6 Objectives Examine the relationship among body composition, diet, and fitness
Describe healthful ways to manage weight
Discuss the causes, symptoms, and treatment of eating disorders
Describe the risks of fad diets and other dangerous weight-loss strategies
Understand the specific nutritional needs of different groups Body Image The way you see your body Redefining Obesity Over Weight
Obesity
Essential Body Fat
Storage Fat
Lean Body Mass Underweight Risk Factors Endomorph
Mesomorph
Ectomorph 1,700- 1,800 calories
MODERATION
VARIETY of low calorie, nutrient dense foods
Drink WATER Energy intake=Energy burned maintain weight http://www.flickr.com/photos/adriarichards/2798736890/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/_sk/3187861042/ http://www.speedysigns.com/images/decals/jpg/H/381/341.jpg + Somatotypes: Healthy Weight-Loss In a nutshell Calculating BMI Website to calculate BMI:
http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/ * Underweight = <18.5
* Normal weight = 18.5-24.9
* Overweight = 25-29.9
* Obesity = 30 - 39.9
* Extreme Obesity = >39.9 Sex Differences Men Women Have higher metabolic rates after puberty
Are more socialized into physical activity Hormonal changes, pregnancy, and menopause cause greater fluctuations in weight
Are more vulnerable to weight gain and experience more pressure to be thin http://blogs.brisbanetimes.com.au/citykat/battle-of-the-sexes.jpg Hunger, Appetite, and Satiety Hypothalamus

Hunger

Appetite

Satiety
– regulates appetite

– inborn physiological response to nutritional needs

– learned response often unrelated to nutritional need

– the feeling of being full
Developmental Factors Hypertrophy - increase in size of fat cells
Hyperplasia - increase in number of fat cells Average size person
30 - 50 billion Overweight Person
60 - 100 billion Obese person
100-200 billion Number of Fat Cells Other factors that
can influence weight: Thyroid
Problems Psychosocial
Factors Advertising
Campaigns and Fast Food Lifestyle Comfort
Socializing 5% Only 50% are active/moderately active
Labour saving devices Calorie A unit for measuring the amount of energy obtained from food 7500 calories = 1 kg (2.2 lbs) Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) The energy expenditure of the body under resting conditions at normal room temperature. Resting Metabolic Rate BMR + additional energy expended through daily sedentary activities. Exercise Metabolic Rate Energy expended during physical activity. Metabolism It is estimated that engaging in 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity each day will help with weight management. http://www.flickr.com/photos/adwriter/486706243/ How many calories are burned
during different exercises? Activity Dieting Is Dieting Healthy? The goal of weight loss should be improved quality of life
Dieting to lose weight can be harmful
Dieting causes repeated cycles of weight loss and regain
Dieting can lead to eating disorders Changing Your Eating Habits Selecting a Nutrition Plan Set relaistic goals
Reward yourself (but not with food)
Avoid quick weight loss programs
Any diet that requires radical changes will most likely fail Miracle Diets Risky Weight Loss Strategies Fad Diets
Liquid Diets
Fasting
Diet Pills
Weight Cycling Eating Disorders Anorexia
Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Consequences Who's at Risk? People who:
have poor self-esteem
food addictions
have a perceived lack of control
seek social approval
suffer from depression and/or addictions Should involve patient, family, and friends
Patient usually seeks medical attention because of someone else's concern
People with Anorexia Nervosa must be hospitalized
Benefit from psychotherapy
Support groups and family therapy can be beneficial Treating Eating Disorders Summary A healthy weight is not necessarily very thin
There is a variety of ways to assess body content
Obesity can be caused by heredity or be self inflicted
There can be physical and psychological factors for weight gain (or loss)
Diets are often not healthy
Physical activity is a key factor for a healthy lifestyle
Dieting should be reflected by a lifestyle change and should not involve radical changes
Diets can lead to eating disorders Self-starvation motivated by an intense fear of gaining weight and a severe disturbance in the perception of one’s own body. Binge eating followed by inappropriate compensating measures taken to prevent weight gain, such as induced vomiting. Dehydration
Kidney damage
Irregular heartbeat
Destroys tooth enamel
Damages tissues of stomach, esophagus, and mouth Hydrostatic
Weighing Skinfold
Measurements Waist
Circumference Bioelectrical
Impedance
Analysis Body
Mass
Index
(BMI) Assessing Your
Body Content Healthy body fat percentages:

Men: 3%-18%
Women: 8%-25% Obesity Risk Factors affected by: media images attitudes of F & F Beautiful Assess body size in relation to your height and weight Cardiovascular Disease
Type II Diabetes
Cancer
High Blood Pressure


Fatigue
Decreased ability to fight illness
Healthy Weight Gain Increase caloric intake
Eat often, second helpings
Eat nutritious snacks
Build muscle Energy intake > Energy burned gain weight Energy intake < Energy burned lose weight Heredity Causes and Symptoms Psychological disorder
Outside pressures
High expectations
Need to be accepted Extremely low caloric intake
Obsession with exercise
Emotional problems
Unnatural interest in food
Distorted body image
Denial Consequences Amenorrhea
Loss of bone density
Low body temperature
Low blood pressure
Slowed metabolism
Reduction in organ size
Irregular heartbeat Binge Eating Disorder Compulsive overeating
Use of food as a coping mechanism Less commonly known eating disorders Body Dismorphic Disorder
Anorexia Athletica
Orthorexia nutrition
Full transcript