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APUSH: American War with Mexico 1846-1848
Transcript of APUSH: American War with Mexico 1846-1848
Stephen Austin: ‘Father of Texas’
Incentives for American settlers:
7 year tax exemptions
Soon however: Mexico restricts immigration because of too many Americans Uprisings and Attacks 1825: Nacogdoches, first uprising.
1832: Attacks by Austin's militia
Santa Anna, Mexican General:
Success in Mexico
Garrisons expelled from Texas, but Goliad and San Antonio Rising Dissatisfaction Grievances: tariff plea, statehood, Coahuila
Extension of self-rule
Repeal immigration restrictions
Meanwhile, Santa Anna in power •Convention of 1836: Texas Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the Republic of Texas
•Sam Houston appointed to Texas Army Independence San Antonio, 1836:Battle of Alamo
Texans enraged: Battle of San Jacinto. Final Battles Treaties of Velasco Who: David G. Burnet and Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna
When: May 14th 1836, after San Jacinto
What: Two Treaties
Public: 10 Articles
Cease of hostility
No future conflict
Line of Retreat
Santa Anna in Mexico
Texas army does not approach
Private: 6 Articles
Promise to liberate Santa Anna on condition
Santa Anna promises:
Favorable Texas mission
Work for a treaty of commerce
Limits specifying that the Texas boundary not lie south of the Rio Grande
Mexican government didn’t recognize the Treaties of Velasco, as they had been violated by both governments. Aftermath •Border Disputes: Rio Grande vs. Nueces River
•Border raids cause casualties and damage
•US annexes Texas •Diplomatic relations severed War with Mexico Causes
Wilmot Proviso (1846)
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
Gadsden Purchase (1853) Texas Texas unhappy with the Mexican government.Grievances:
Mexican government ordered farmers to grow certain products only
Texas independent, and Mexico threatened war if annexation into US occurred
Mexico viewed Texas as part of it
December 1845: Annexation
President Polk claims Rio Grande River as a part of Mexico. California US:
Willing to negotiate with Mexico
Mexico: says no
John Fremont and armed men
Guise: purchase a home near the sea for his mother.
Gavilan Peak Fort, American Flag
Return in 1845: Fremont and Immigrants declare California's independence Negotiations President Polk sends John Slidell, Mexicans uninterested and thought of TX as part of Mexico.
Built an army
1846: Mexican Attack of US Patrols
Reason for US to go to war The Battle of Palo Alto •May 8, 1846
•Mexicans had a very strong defense position but the U.S won
•New flying artillery unit
•Battle proved tough and close •May 9, 1846 •Americans attacked
•Fired Cannons fiercely Battle of Resaca de la Palma For U.S.:
Could win in enemy territory
Effects of flying artillery
Troops' morale increases
Politics back in U.S. affected Aftermath of The Two Battles Mexico City Campaign Siege of Veracruz Polk: invade central Mexico, capture the capital at Mexico City.
General Winfield Scott and 12,000 troops selected
Scott sailed south, landed on Collado Beach (near port of Veracruz) and landed siege.
Veracruz surrenders 20 days later
March inland Battle of Cerro Gordo April 18, Cerro Gordo: Scott comes across 12,000 of Santa Anna's troops
Robert E. Lee spots moutain trail
Army surprises Mexicans, one general killed and five troops captured Occupation of Puebla in May, push towards capital
Contreras, August 1847: American attack Molino del Rey 5 miles from Mexico City
September 8, 1847: Scott ordered General William Worth to attack anyone that was found; thought cannon foundry was present.
780 American casualties and wounded
2,200 Mexican casualties and wounded Battle of Chapultepec Mission: to reach Mexico City, and had to storm Chapultepec Castle first
September 12: commence fire
The Americans drove back Mexicans
George Pickett was the first to reach the top of these walls. Fall of Mexico City General John Quitman
American troops breach gate.
5 hour fight
Americans triumph Santa Anna's Last Campaign Santa Anna tries to cut off coast
General Rea: siege on Puebla, Santa Anna joins
Siege fails because of General Joseph Lane
October 1847: Lane relieves Puebla
Santa Anna's last battle: Huamantla 1846
Proposed by David Wilmot:
Prohibit slavery in the new territory
Prevented slavery’s expansion in new territory
Attached the proviso to an appropriations bill to pay Mexico for land. Congress House of Representatives:
So, approved appropriations bill and proviso on August 8, 1846.
February 1, 1847
Approved bill, rejected proviso.
The proviso never went into effect. Northern vs. Southern States Senators vote by region
Northern and Southern states want balance between slave and free states
Congress stuck: neither side had majority, bill could not be sent to president Effects and Opinions of the Proviso Caused more conflict over slavery
further divided North and South
Other people that would have been affected by the proviso feared economic competition from slave owners Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo When: February 2, 1848
Where: Guadalupe Hidalgo.
What: officially ended the Mexican-American War. Peace Negotiations Mexican government surrenders, wants negotiations
Nicholas Trist (chief clerk of the State Department) and General Winfield Scott (President Polk’s representative) from US.
Negotiations involving special commission from Mexico and Trist
Wanted Mexico's full surrender, including some territory.
Mexico ceded upper California and New Mexico to US. Mexican Cession Territory included present-day Arizona, New Mexico, and parts of Utah, Nevada, and Colorado.
US made promises
Arbitration Settlement Trist sends treaty to Polk, who is in D.C.
March 10, 1848: Senate ratified treaty
Troops leave Mexican capital Consequences Ratification of treaty officially ended war, but short and long term consequences for both nations. United States Short-Term: •525k square miles of territory
•13,000 dead from combat and disease
•Surge of patriotism.
•Fulfilled Democratic view of Manifest Destiny. United States Long-Term Slavery issue heats up
South gains stronger political position
Younger military officers recognized (Stonewall Jackson, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, George Meade, and many more). United States Another Effect: Manifest Destiny Belief: God wants/blesses American expansion
Expansion: natural to Americans
Native people: deemed heathens
Settlers wanted to
"Save souls"(Christianize natives)
Cross MS River Mexico Short-Term: Lost territory
Negative feeling towards US because of land loss
Interpretation of War:
Dishonorable exercise of power
fueled by Southern slave owners’ needs. Mexico Long-Term Political instability follows
Domestic affairs unstable as well Final Consequence: Gadsden Purchase 1853, finalized in 1854
US and Mexico's agreement
US buys present-day Arizona and New Mexico
Land for the southern transcontinental railroad
Resolves conflicts with Mexico that were still present New Tensions Arise Despite Treaty, new tensions arose over next 6 years.
Causes of Tensions:
American citizens enter Mexico illegally Complications and Continued Tensions US: wants southern transcontinental rail, would pass through Mexico. Not possible because of tensions.
1847: America wants to buy Isthmus of Tehuantepec, it will serve as the southern connection for rail
Don José de Garay, New Orleans Company: given right to build colonies on Isthmus.
Juan Ceballos (interim Mexican President for Anna) revokes grant; 1853: Mexican officials evict Americans from their property.
President Santa Anna: reluctant to sell, but needs money Purchase and Revised Treaty December 30, 1853: Santa Anna and Gadsden sign treaty;
US to pay $15 million for 45K Square miles of Mexico.
April 25, 1854: Senate ratifies revised treaty:
Price $10 million for 29,670 square miles
No mention of Native American attacks.
Signed: June 8, 1854.
Treay fails to sort out financial claims and border attacks