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AP Environmental Science Timeline Activity
Transcript of AP Environmental Science Timeline Activity
By: Conner Cunningham
1798: Thomas Mathus predicted that exponential population growth would outplace linear food production, leading to starvation
1854: Walden by Henry David Thoreau
Walden is a book written by HDT that explains his experiences whilst living in a cabin near Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts.
1862: Homestead Act
This act allowed adult heads of families to claim 160 acres of land as long as they cultivated the land and build a dwelling, or did something to "improve" the plot of land
1872: Yellowstone National Park founded
Forestry Association founded
Established as the oldest group to promote forest conservation
1890: Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks founded
1838: John Muir- Born April 21, 1838
Muir was a naturalist that helped to preserve Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks. He also the founder of the Sierra Club which is now on of the most important conservation organizations in the United States.
1891: General Revision Act
Authorized the President of the United States to create forest preserves under the Forest Reserve Act.
1892: Sierra Club founded
This organization is one of the oldest, largest and most influential environmental affiliations in the United States. Founded by John Muir.
1900: Lacey Act
Protects the environment by administering civil and criminal penalties for various violations of plant life and wildlife.
1901-1909: Golden Age of Conservation (Theodore Roosevelt)
1903: First national wildlife refuge established
1905: U.S. Forest Service founded
National organization that administers 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands.
1905: Gifford Pinchot
Served as the first President of the U.S. Forest Service from 1905-1910.
1905: Aldo Leopold
An influence in modern environmental ethics and wilderness conservation.
1905: Audubon Society founded
One of the oldest non-profit organizations dedicated to conservation.
1906: Antiquities Act
A law that allows the President of the U.S. to restrict the use of particular public land owned by the federal government.
1907: Congress became upset because Roosevelt was waving so much forest land so they banned further withdrawals
1912: U.S. National Park Service founded
1933: Civilian Conservation Corps founded
Public work relief program that providing unskilled manual labor jobs related to conservation.
1930's: Dust Bowl
1933: Soil Conservation Service founded
Agency of the USDA that gives technical assistance to farmers and private land owners.
1934: Taylor Grazing Act
U.S. federal law that provides regulation of grazing on public lands.
1934: Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act
Requires adhesive stamp to hunt migratory birds by federal law.
1940: Fish Plus Wildlife Service founded
Federal government agency dedicated to the management of fish, wildlife and natural habitats.
1960: Jane Goodall
Considered to be the world's foremost expert on Chimpanzees and has worked extensively on conservation and animal welfare.
1962: Silent Spring written by Rachel Carson
A book that is widely credited for starting the American environmental movement.
1963: Wilderness Act
Created the legal definition of wilderness in the United States and protected 9.1 million acres of federal land.
1968: Garret Hardin introduced the tragedy of the commons
1968: Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
Selected American rivers are preserved as free-flowing non- impeded bodies of water.
1969-1974 Richard Nixon:
Created the National Environmental Act of 1969. Outlined national environmental policies for the first time.
1969: Cuyahoga River in Cleveland, Ohio, caught fire
Article in Time magazine starts up controversy about how unhealthy the river it is. Described as oozing not flowing.
1969: National Environmental Policy Act
Established a national policy promoting the enhancement of the environment.
1970: First Earth Day
1970: Environmental Protection Agency established/ Clean Air Act
Created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by regulations based on laws passed by Congress.
Clean air act designed to control air pollution on a national level.
1973: Endangered Species Act
Federal law that set up national U.S. pesticide regulations
1973: OPEC Oil Embargo
Oil crisis steeply increases the price of oil. Americans begin driving smaller, more fuel efficient cars for the sake of conservation.
1974: Sherwood Roland and Molina Announce that CFC's are depleting the ozone layer
Chlorofluorocarbons were commonly used as refrigerants until this time.
1976: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Federal law governing the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste.
1977: Clean Water Act
Federal law governing water pollution.
1977: Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
Federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the U.S.
1978: Love Canal, NY and Lois Gibbs
Growing population in the Niagara Falls area of NY, demanded land for new schools. The land purchased was used to dispose of toxic waste which would eventually leak in to residential homes.
1979:Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident
A partial nuclear meltdown occurred. Small amounts of radioactive gases and iodine were released into the atmosphere.
1980: Alaskan Lands Act
A federal law passed to conserve the land of Alaska. The law has preserved over 43.5 million acres of national parks.
1981-1989: Ronald Reagan
Signed 43 bills designating over 10 million acres of wilderness areas in 27 states.
1984: Bhopal, India
A gas leak from a pesticide plant in India is responsible for up to 16,000 gas related deaths.
Worst nuclear power plant breakdown in history. Blamed for 31 immediate deaths. Land deemed unlivable for the next 20,000 years.
1986: Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act
A federal law that is designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous material.
1987: Montreal Protocol
An international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer.
1987: World Population reaches 5 billion
1989: Exxon Valdez
Oil spill that occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Between 260,000 and 750,000 oil barrels were leaked into the ocean. It is considered to one of the most devastating environmental disasters caused by humans.
1992: Energy Policy Act of 1992
A U.S. Government act that addressed energy efficiency, conservation, and management.
1994: Desert Protection Act
Federal law that established Death Valley and Joshua Trees National Parks and the Mojave National Preserve.
1997: Julia Butterfly Hill sat in a tree "Luna" for 700+ days to protest deforestation
1999: World Population reaches 6 billion
1997-2005: Kyoto Protocol
An international treaty that sets obligations on industrialized countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
2011: World Population Reaches 7 billion