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Models of the Atom
Transcript of Models of the Atom
By, Wendy Oberas
The Quantum Mechanical Model
The Quantum Mechanical Model also known as the Quantum Theory was discovered in the early 1900's by Max Planck who suggested that radiation came in discrete amounts. There were various people among the years who contributed to the Quantum theory like Albert Einstein. Erwin Schrödinger developed various results involving the Quantum Theory. It is matter that has properties associated with waves.The Quantum Mechanical Model is based on mathematical information and interpretations.
Joseph John Thomson's Model
Neils Henrik David Bohr's Model
The Models of the Atom Timeline
John Dalton was an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist. He was born on September 6, 1766 in Eaglesfield, United Kingdom. Dalton died on July 27, 1844 in Manchester, United Kingdom.
John Dalton's Model
Dalton's model was created by John Dalton. He came up with
the his theory by doing research on gases. He had discovered that
certain gases could only be if two different compounds shared
the same elements. The findings of his confirmed theories became Dalton's Atomic Laws. His theory was that the atoms of different elements could be differentiated by their weights.
Joseph John Thomson was a British physicist. He was born on December 18, 1856 in Manchester, United Kingdom and he died August 30, 1940 in Cambridge, United Kingdom.
J J Thomson's atomic model was proposed in the year of 1904. It was called the Plum Pudding Model. They referred to his model as a cloud of positive charge nucleus. The atom is composed of electrons, surrounded by positive charge to even out the negative electrons. The "plums" were the negative charge while the "pudding" became the surrounding positive charge therefore calling it the Plum Pudding model.
Ernest Rutherford was a chemist and
physicist who became known as the
father of nuclear physics. He was born
on August 30, 1871 in Brightwater, New
Zealand. He died on October 19, 1937
in Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Ernest Rutherford ' Model
Ernest Rutherford's model was proposed in the year of 1911. Rutherford demonstrated that the atom has a tiny, massive nucleus which overturned J J Thomson's atom model. Rutherford's model was called the Gold Foil Experiment. It has also been called the nuclear atom or the planetary model of the atom.
The following timeline shows a description the major
models of the atom: John Dalton's model, J J Thomson's model, Rutherford B. Hayes' model, Neils Bohr's model and the quantum mechanical model. An atom is a basic unit of matter. It is a structure of an element. An atom consists of a nucleus of protons and neutrons with electrons orbiting the nucleus.
Bohr's Model was proposed in the year of 1913. It was commonly known as the " planetary model". Bohr began studying the properties of atoms after he was introduced to Ernest Rutherford. His model shows the neutrons and protons occupying the nucleus; and the electrons orbit the nucleus.
Niels Bohr theorized what
happens inside an atom and
he developed a picture of the
Neils Bohr was a Danish physicist. He made contributions to understanding quantum mechanics and atomic structures. He was born on October 7, 1885 in Copenhagen, Denmark. He died on November 18, 1962 in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Ernest Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment
Rutherford's experiment was proposed in the year of 1911. Rutherford's research included the use and study of alpha particles. Alpha particles are what Rutherford classified in 1898 when he began to wonder if the uranium rays would ionize the gas. Afyer he finished his studies he discovered that they're were two uranium rays called alpha and beta. Using the alpha particles he performed experiments and in 1909 he found out that the Plum Pudding model of J. J. Thomson would not always work accordingly when it was fired at a gold foil. He also used different foils in his experiment such as aluminum, iron and lead. The alpha particles should have passed directly through the gold foil. To prove his theory Rutherford's two associates (Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden) performed the experiment while Rutherford explained the results. His hypothesis was confirmed correct but, a small handful of particles that deflected slightly from the straight path. Their biggest discovery was made when 1 in 20 000 particles would deflect around 90 degrees of the straight path. Rutherford had said, "It was as if you fired a 15-inch shell at a sheet of tissue paper and it came back to hit you."
How does science generate new ideas?
Is science ever finished?
Science generates new ideas by building on from the old experiments or theories. Science also generates new ideas by studying different things and mixing things you never thought would cease to exist. Broaden your minds and think outside the box. For example, the Quantum Mechanical model started in the early 1900's by Max Planck and was added on by several different scientists in the following years.
No; science is never finished. It helps change our world, it changes each generation. If science was finished then we wouldn't be able to find a cure for several different diseases or to improve technology and maybe for everyone to live in space. Our lives would be boring repeating the same cycle over and over again. Science is everywhere you might study it on your own or start learning from others.There is always new things to discover. For example, Neils Bohr began his study of the properties of atoms after he was introduced to Ernest Rutherford. Perhaps Rutherford gave Bohr inspiration to continue his study of the atom.
Thomson's Atomic Theory
The atomic theory created by J. J. Thomson was known as the Plum Pudding model. It was also known as the Chocolate Chip Cookie or the Blueberry Muffin. Thomson's discovery of the electrons in 1897 led to the discovery of the Plum Pudding model. Thomson had said, "that no matter where matter came from, it contained particles that were the same and are smaller than the atoms that matter is formed from." He used a cathode ray scope to create his model. It's round, thick and liquid substance which is the positive charge cancels
out the negative charge of the electrons. His
Model soon faded away when Rutherford's
gold foil experiment proved that the atom
contained a nucleus which has a positive charge.