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The Titanic Failure
Transcript of The Titanic Failure
The Titanic History
The White Star Line
John Pilkington and Henry Wilson founded
the White Star Line in 1845
Construction of Titanic
Harland and Wolff
Titanic, The unsinkable Ship
The Titanic oceanic liner
New commercial liner to compete
against Mauritania and Lusitania ocean liners.
Build the largest and most luxurious and
technologically advanced ship.
The Sinking of Titanic
Titanic's radio operators received six messages from other ships warning of drifting ice. Not all of these messages were relayed by the radio operators.
Failures in Titanic
Could Titanic's Sinking be avoided?
Consequences due to Titanic's sinking
In 1868 Thomas Ismay purchased the White Star Line and he made a deal with Gustav Christian and his nephew Gustav Wilhelm Wolff (Harland and Wolff)
The new White Star Line and the Cunard Line
In the beginning of the XX century, the White Star Line proposed the construction of a new class of liner.
Weight: 46000 tonnes
Passengers: 2200 (including staff)
Volume: 131100 cubic metres
Length: about 300 metres
Beam: about 30 metres
Height: about 53 metres
The design of the Titanic was done by the naval architect Thomas Andrews. He died in the sinking of Titanic.
The Olympic and the Titanic were constructed at the same time in a shipyard of Belfast, Ireland between 1908 and 1912.
Shipyard of Belfast, Ireland
Construction of Titanic
It was constituted by more than 1 million of 1 inch steel plates joined by over than 3 million of triple steel rivets and double wrought iron rivets.
The steel used was low carbon with a high concentration of phosphorus and sulfur. Moreover, the grain size wasn't regulated at that time and was about 12 times bigger than compared with the actual modern material norms. All of these characteristics increased the transition temperature of the metal.
In the case of Titanic, some studies have proved that the transition temperature of the steel was upper than 32ºC.
The design of the Titanic included sixteen watertight compartments which presented several improvements in the naval industry:
Increase the structural rigidity of the vessel.
Create a passive fire protection.
The compartments can contain water in case of a hull breach or other leach.
Estimated weight of iceberg: About 166000 tonnes
Estimated volume of iceberg: About 18000 cubic metres
Each compartment vertical watertight isolation ended just 3m above the floatation line
Wrong materials chosen (brittle steel)
One of two rows of lifeboats were removed for aesthetically reasons
Rivets materials were of below quality properties that the specified in the design.
For a logistic error binoculars were believed to be left in the port of Southampton
The Titanic was going in overspeed
Ignoring the 6 ice warnings of surrounding ships
Wrong maneuver decisions
Construction of Titanic
Watertight tanks distribution and design to avoid flotability compromise due to vessel fracture. I.E: horizontal waterthight walls.
More reinforced hull and reinforced plate joinings.
Faster evacuation routes and procedures.
Not using unqualified materials in non demanding zones.
Not removing half of the lifeboats due to esthetic reasons.
Crew operating as designed in each sailing condition. I.E: not over-speed at night.
Warning calls correctly noted and given to captain and not just ignored.
Lookouts material according to the meteorological conditions.
Specifications on horizontally oriented walls or through the width walls in watertight compartments. Floating with two flooded compartments.
Double-sided hulls and compulsory use of steel rivets. Limitation in sulphur concentration in steel..
Wireless communication system on over 1600T boats.
100% capacity lifeboats, adequate surviving and navigation supplies. Davits depending on length, capability of appilated rows. In big ships at least 2 motor lifeboats with fuel reserve.
Ice patrol by the United States alert the on-rute ships of approaching ice fields.
1948 Convention on Security of Life at Sea modification.