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STAFFING THE ENGINEERING ORGANIZATION

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Czeryna Ayra

on 5 October 2014

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Transcript of STAFFING THE ENGINEERING ORGANIZATION

STAFFING THE ENGINEERING
ORGANIZATION

WHAT IS STAFFING?
Staffing may be defined as, “the management functions that determines human resource needs, recruits, selects, trains, and develops human resources for jobs created by an organization.”
WHAT IS STAFFING?
Staffing is undertaken to match people with jobs so that the realization of the organization’s objectives will be facilitated.
THE STAFFING PROCEDURE
STAFFING PROCESS
1. Human Resource Planning
2. Recruitment
3. Selection
4. Induction and Orientation
5. Training and Development
6. Performance Appraisal
7. Employment Decisions
8. Separations
1. HUMAN RESOURCE
PLANNING
It is designed to ensure that the personnel needs of the organization will be constantly and appropriately met.
PROGRAMMING
Programming means translating the forecasted human resource needs to personnel objectives and goals.
EVALUATION & CONTROL
It refers to monitoring human resource action plans and evaluating their success.
FORECASTING
It is an assessment of future human resource needs in relation to the current capabilities of the organization.
TIME SERIES METHODS
They use historical data to develop forecasts of the future.
MONITORING METHODS
They are those that provide early warning signals of significant changes in established patterns and relationships so that the engineer manager can assess the likely impact and plan responses if required.
EXPLANATORY/CASUAL MODELS
They are attempts to identify the major variables that are related to or have caused particular past conditions and then use current measures of these variables to predict future conditions.
REGRESSION MODELS
ECONOMETRIC MODELS
A system of regression equations estimated from past time-series data and used to show the effect of various independent variables on various dependent variables.
LEADING INDICATORS
It refers to time series that anticipate business cycle turns.
2. RECRUITMENT
Recruitment refers to attracting qualified persons to apply for vacant positions in the company so that those who are best suited to serve the company may be selected.
2 KINDS OF RECRUITMENT

General Recruiting
– This takes place when the organization needs a group of workers of a certain kind.

Specialized Recruiting
– This takes place when the organization is in need of a particular type of individual, mainly for higher-level executives or specialists.
SOURCE OF APPLICANTS
 Organization’s current employees
 Newspaper advertising
 Schools
 Referrals from employees
 Recruitment firms
 Competitors
3. SELECTION
Selection refers to the act of choosing from those that are available the individuals most likely to succeed on the job. The purpose of selection is to evaluate each candidate and to pick the most suited for the position available.
Ways of Determining the Qualifications of a Job Candidate
Application blanks

References

Interviews

Testing

TYPES OF TEST
1.
Psychological Tests
– which is “an objective, standard measure of a sampler behavior”. It is classified into:

a.
Aptitude Test
– one used to measure a person’s capacity or potential ability to learn.
b. Performance Test – one used to measure a person’s current knowledge of a subject.
c.
Personality Test
– one used to measure personality traits as dominance, sociability, and conformity.
d.
Interest Test
– one used to measure person’s interest in various fields of work.

2.
Physical Examination
– a type of test given to assess the physical health of an applicant. It is given “to assure that the health of the applicant is adequate to meet the job requirements.”
4. INTRODUCTION & ORIENTATION
In
INTRODUCTION
, the new employee is provided with the necessary information about the company. His duties, responsibilities and benefits are relayed to him. The company history, its products and services, and the organization structure are explained to the new employee.

In
ORIENTATION
, the new employee is introduced to the immediate working environment and co-workers. The following are discussed: location, rules, equipment, procedures, and training plans. The new employee also undergoes the “socialization process” by pairing him with an experienced employee.
5. TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
If the newly-hired employee is assessed to be lacking the necessary skills required by the job, training becomes necessity.
1. Training programs for non-managers – this type of training is directed to non-managers for specific increase in skills and knowledge to perform a particular job.

2. Training and educational programs for executives
2 TYPES OF GENEREAL TRAINING
4 Methods Under Training Programs for Non-Managers
1. On-the-job training – where the trainer is placed in an actual work situation under the direction of his immediate supervisor, who acts as trainer.
2. Vestibule school – where the trainee is placed in a situation almost exactly the same as the workplace where machines, materials, and time constraints are present.
3. Apprenticeship program – where a combination of on-the-job training and experience with classroom instruction in particular subjects are provided to trainees.
4. Special courses – are those taken which provide more emphasis on education rather that training.
TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR MANAGERS
The training needs of managers may be classified into four areas:
decision - making skills
interpersonal skills
job knowledge
organizational knowledge
DECISION - MAKING SKILLS
The decision-making skills of the manager may be enhanced through any of the following methods of training:
1. In-basket – where the trainee is provided with a set of note, messages, telephone calls, letters, and reports, all pertaining to a certain company situation. He is expected to handle the situation within a given period of 1 to 2 hours.
2. Management games – is a training method where “trainees are faced with a simulated situation and are required to make an ongoing series of decision about that situation.”
3. Case studies – this method presents actual situation In organizations and enable to examine successful and unsuccessful operations.

INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
The interpersonal competence of the manager may be developed through any of the following methods:
1. Role Playing
2. Behavior modeling
3. Sensitivity training
4. Transactional analysis
JOB KNOWLEDGE
In acquiring knowledge about the actual job the manager is currently holding, the following methods are useful:
ON-THE-JOB EXPERIENCE
This method provides valuable opportunities for the trainee to learn various skills while actually engaged in the performance of a job.
COACHING
This method requires a senior manager to assist a lower-level manager by teaching him the needed skills and generally providing directions, advice, and helpful criticism. The senior manger must be skilled himself and have the ability to educate; otherwise the method will be ineffective
UNDERSTUDY
Under this method, a manger work as assistant to higher-level manager and participates in planning and other managerial functions until he is ready to assume such position himself. Once in a while, the assistant is allowed to take over.
ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE
In the attempt to increase the trainee’s knowledge of the total organization, exposure to information and events outside of his immediate job is made. In this regard, the following methods are useful:
POSITION ROTATION
Under this method, the manager is given assignments in a variety of departments. The purpose is to expose him to different functions of the organization.
MULTIPLE
MANAGEMENT
This method is premised on the idea that junior executives must be provided with means to prepare them for higher management positions.
6. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Performance appraisal is the measurement of employee performance. The purposes or which performance appraisal is made are as follows:
1. To influence, in a positive manner, employee performance and development;

2. To determine merit pay increases;

3. To plan for future performance goals;

4. To determine training and development needs and

5. To assess the promotional potential of employees.

WAYS OF APPRAISING
PERFORMANCE
1.
Rating scale method
- where each trait or characteristic to be rated is represented by a line or scale on which the rater indicates the degree to which the individual possess the trait or characteristic.

2.
Essay method
- where the evaluator composes statements that best describe the person evaluated.

3.
Management by objectives method
- where specific goals are set collaboratively for the organization as a whole, for various subunits, and for each individual member. Individuals are, then, evaluated on the basis on how well they achieved the results specified by the goals.

4.
Assessment center method
- when one is evaluated by persons other than the immediate superior. This method is used for evaluating managers.

5.
Checklist method
- where the evaluator checks statements on a list that are deemed to characterize an employee’s behavior or performance. Work standards method- where the evaluator checks statements on a list are deemed to characterize an employee’s behavior or performance.

6.
Work standards method
- where standards are set for the realistic worker output and later on used in evaluating the performance of non-managerial employees.

7.
Ranking method
- where each evaluator arranges employees in rank order from the best to the poorest.

8.
Critical-incident method
- where the evaluator recalls and writes down specific (but critical) incidents that indicate the employee’s performance. A critical-incident occurs when employee’s behavior results in an unusual success or failure on some parts of the job.
7. EMPLOYMENT
DECISIONS
After evaluating the performance of employees (managerial or otherwise), the management will now be ready to make employment decisions. These may consist of the following:
1.
Monetary rewards
- these are given to employees whose performance is at par or above standard requirements.
2.
Promotion
- this refers to a movement by a person into a position of higher pay and greater responsibilities and which is given as a reward for competence and ambition.
3.
Transfer
- this is the movement of a person to a different job at the same or similar level of responsibility in the organization. Transfers are made to provide growth opportunities for the persons involved or to get rid of a poor performing employee.
4.
Demotion
- this is a movement from one position to another which has less pay or responsibility attached to it. Demotion is used as a form of punishment or as a temporary measure to keep an employee until he is offered a higher position.
8. SEPARATION
Separation is either a voluntary or involuntary termination of an employee. When made voluntarily, the organization’s management must find out the real reason. If the presence of a defect in the organization is determined, corrective action is necessary.
Involuntary separation (or termination) is the last option that the management exercises when an employee’s performance is poor or when he/she committed an act violating the company rules and regulations. This is usually made after training efforts fail to produce positive results.
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