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Nervous System

AP Biology Presentation
by

Kevin Saechew

on 20 May 2015

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Transcript of Nervous System

Nervous System
Transmission of Nerve Impulse
Nervous System


Morris, J., Hartl, D., Knoll, A., and Lue, R. 2013. Animal Nervous System. Biology: How Life Works, 1st ed. pp. 35-1 – 35 -21. New York, NY.

Pack, P.E. 2007. Animal Form and Function. CliffsAP Biology, 3rd ed. (eds. Henthorne K.D. et al), pp. 194 - 196. Hoboken, NJ.




References
Chemical Transmission of a Nerve Impulse
Three General Groups of Neurons
Major Parts of a Neuron
Cell body: contains nucleus + cellular organelles

Dendrites: receive stimuli or signals

Axons: transmit signals


Nerve Cell
AKA Neuron

Basic structural unit of the NS

Function: receives & transmits info
Intro
Ch. 48 + 49 (pgs. 1047 – 1086)
By: Kevin Saechew, Megan Cassidy and Beth Clifton

An In-Depth Look at the Neuron
Reflex Arc
Nervous System
:
A network of many
interconnected nerve cells
Dendrites
Nucleus
Axon
Cell Body
Nodes of
Ranvier
Myelin sheath
Schwann cells
Sensory:
Interneurons:
Motor:
Receive & transmit information
about an animal’s environment
or its internal physiological state
AKA association neurons

Process info from sensory
neurons and transmit it
to motor neurons

They are integrators:
evaluate information
for appropriate responses
Stimulate effectors which are
target cells that produce
suitable response
e.g. neurons in the retina of the
eye are stimulated by light
Synaptic
terminals
Autonomic Nervous System
-Controls all involuntary activities

This includes:
-heart rate
-saliva production
-breathing
-digestion
-other organ functions
Sympathetic NS
"Fight or Flight" Response

-Always active
-Responsible for stress

-Prepares the body for action by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, enhancing sense of smell, dilating pupils, activating adrenal cortex
Parasympathetic NS
"Rest and Digest" response

-Decreases heart rate
-constricts lungs
-Increases saliva production
-Increases blood flow to digestive tracts
Divisions of the Nervous System
synapse/ synaptic cleft:
gap between adjacent neurons

presynaptic cell:
neuron that transmits the impulse
postsynaptic cell:
neuron that receives the impulse
Myelin sheath:
multiple lipid-rich layers that wrap around and insulate the axons of neurons--consists of Schwann cells
Node of Ranvier:
gaps in the myelin of axons that are able to generate electrical activity
saltatory conduction:
action potential jumps from Node of Ranvier to Node of Ranvier, greatly increasing the speed of nerve signal transmission
In balance, thus creating homeostasis
Common Neurotransmitters
Depolarized State
Repolarized State
molecules that pass information at synapses from neurons to their target cells
acetylcholine
excitatory neurotransmitter: increases action potential generation, stimulating transmission of signals
stimulates muscles to contract
epinephrine
AKA "adrenaline"
associated with energy and emergency systems--"fight or flight" response
functions in memory formation in the brain
norepinephrine
AKA "noradrenalin"
functions similarly to epinephrine--danger response, "fight or flight"
increases blood pressure and heart rate, and releases glucose (providing energy)
dopamine
excitatory, acts as a stimulator
functions in movement, memory, pleasure reward, behavior and cognition, attention and learning
low levels of dopamine are associated with addiction
serotonin
inhibitory neurotransmitter: depresses action potential generation, lowering the transmission of signals; thus involved in regulatory activities
regulates appetite, sleep cycle and pain control, and balances mood
low levels are associated with depression, anger-control issues, and OCD
GABA (γ-Aminobutyric acid)
most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain--functions in regulatory activities
low levels of GABA are associated with anxiety
Hyperpolarized State
Polarized State
(afferent)
(efferent)
e.g. stimulate a muscle
to contract to produce
movement
Full transcript