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Audiolingual Method & Silent Way
Transcript of Audiolingual Method & Silent Way
Only lasted 2 years objective To attain conversational proficiency in a variety of foreign languages. it was derived from a view proposed by American linguists in the 50's Language:
system of structurally related elements (phonemes, morphemes, words, structures and sentence types) for the encoding of meaning STRUCTURAL a. elements in a language were tought of as being linearly produced in a rule-governed way (structured) b. language samples could be exhaustively described at any structural level of description c. linguistic levels were thought of a s systems within systems - pyramidally structured- some languages don't have written form, we lear to speak before we learn to read or write, it was argued that language is "primarly what is spoken and only secondarily what is written" (Brooks 1964) Theory of Learning You need to identify:
the foreign language learner,
the behavior as verbal behavior
the stimulus as what is taught or presented of the foreign language
the response as the learner's reaction to the stimulus
the reinforcement as the extrinsic approval and praise of the teacher, fellos, etc. or the intrinsic self-satisfaction of target language use. Central Practices a. Foreign language learning is a process of mechanical habit formation b. Aural-oral trainning is needed to provide the foundation for the development of other skills c. Analogy provides a better foundation for language learning than analysis d. The meaning can be learned in a linguistic and cultural context. Objectives Short-range objetives long-range objectives training in listening comprehension, accurate pronunciation, recognition of speech symbols as graphic signs on the pringed page and ability to reproduce these symbols in writing. "must be language... as the native speaker uses it" (Brooks 1964) Structure-based approach to language teaching. the language skills are taught in the order of listening, speaking, reading and writing Learning and Teaching Activities Dialogues and drills Dialogues provide the means of contextualizing key structures and ilustrate situations in which structures might be used as well as some cultural aspects of the target language Drills 1. Repetition 2. Inflection 3. Replacement 4. Restatement 5. Completion 6. Transposition 7. Expansion 8. Contraction 9. Transformation 10. Integration 11. Rejoinder 12. Restoration Learner's Role Reactive role Teacher's Role central and active
models, controls, monitors and corrects The role of Instructional Materials teacher oriented
ex. tape recorders, audiovisual equipment (have central roles) Procedure 1. Model a dialogue
2. Dialogue adapted to the students' interests.
3. Key structures selected as basis for drilling
4. follow-up reading, writing or vocabulary activities
5. follow-up activities in the language laboratory
The Silent Way The name of a method of language teaching devised by Caleb Gattegno Learning Hypotheses
Gattegno's work 1. Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned 2. Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects. 3. Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned Silent Way Problem Solving
in which the learner is a principal actor rather than a bench -bound listener The rods of the color-coded pronunciation charts it provides physical foci for student learning it creates memorable images to facilitate student recall it takes place in a hypothetical mode "the teacher and the student are in a more cooparative position" The Silent Way is related to a set of premises that are called problem-solving to teaching" Tell me and I forget,
teach me and I remember
involve me and I learn Characteristics Experience is what gives meaning A structural approach to the organization of language to be taught Language is separated from its social context and taught through artificial situations, usually represented by rods. The sentence is the basic unit of teaching, and the teacher focuses on propositional meanint rather than on communicative value. Vocabulary is seen vocabulary as a central dimension of languge learning The learner deals with the most functional and versatile words of the language Theory of Language Theory of learning It is "radically different" from those involved in learning a first language" It is called the artificial approach Silence is considered to the best vehicle for learning in silence, students concentrate to the task to be accomplished and the potential means to its accomplishment Silent Way is not merely a language teaching method it is nothing less than the education of the spiritual powers and of the sensitivity of the individual Objective it is to give beginning level students oral and aural facility in basic elements of the target language An immediate objective is to provide the learner with a basic practical knowledge of the grammar of the language The Syllabus hos to learn a language It adopts basically structural syllabus, with lesson planned around grammatical items and related vocabulary language items are introduced according to their grammatical complexity Vocabulary is selected according to the degree to which it can be manipulated within a given structure and according to its productivity Charts, rods, and other aids may be used to elicit learner responses. Roles Learners are expected to develop in dependence, autonomy, and responsibility (Independent learers). The absence of correction and repeated modeling from the teacher requires the students to develop "inner criteria" and to correct themselves learners thus have to play varying roles Learner Roles Teacher silence is the mos demanding aspect of the Silent Way Teacher's tasks: 1. to teach
2. to test
3. to get out of the way Tr. is responsible for creating an environment that encourages student risk taking and that facilitates learning The role of instructional Materials set of colored rods
vocabulary wall charts
reading/writing exercises, the material is designed for manipulation by the students Procedure 1. Teacher models the appropriate sound after pointing to a symbol on the chart 2. Teacher silently points to individual symbols and combinations of symbols, and monitor student utterances 3. Tr. uses pointer to indicate stress 4. After practice, the teacher models an utterance while creating a visual realization of it 5. Tr. creates a situation so students can practice the structure through the manipulation of the rods. Key Aspects Indirect role of the teacher -->
to assume in directing and monitoring learner performance, the responsability place upon learneers to figure out and test their hypotheses about how language works the materials used to elicit and practice language