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The teacher as a facilitator for learning (CSEDU 2017)

Flipped Classroom in a Master’s Course on Artificial Intelligence
by

Robin Trulssen Bye

on 21 April 2017

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Transcript of The teacher as a facilitator for learning (CSEDU 2017)

Information & Structure
The Teacher as a Facilitator for Learning
Main Idea
CONTENTS
Course
Overview
Course details

Course evaluation
Frame factors
Flipped Classroom in a Master’s Course on Artificial Intelligence
Robin T. Bye, SoftICE Lab
NTNU, Ålesund, Norway
robin.t.bye@ntnu.no

Introduction
Teaching
Methods
Course
Evaluation
Discussion
Bishop & Verleger, 2013
Bishop & Verleger, 2013
Constructive alignment
before: mainly "elite" students
now: "everyone" studies
how to get deep learning for "all"?
Constructive alignment = learning by doing (construct) + alignment of:
teacher and students
teaching context
learning activities
learning outcomes
challenge!
Backward course design
(1) define intended learning outcomes (ILOs)
(2) define assessments aligned with (1)
(3)define teaching methods and learning activities aligned with (1) and (2)
Key point: strategic learners lead to the exam (assessment tasks) defining the curriculum!
Cognitive Load Theory
only 5-7 pieces of information simultaneously in working memory
process of moving new information from working memory into long-term memory
solution: break problem into smaller, manageable pieces
Flipped classroom: self-paced video lectures, rewatching, repetition, order of learning tasks...
bottleneck!
Facilitating learning
constructive alignment helps...
...but requires self-monitoring and self-regulation
learning environment is not enough to achieve ILOs...
...due to students' individual skills in self-monitoring and self-regulation
Teacher should adopt a role as a
similar to a personal trainer at the gym, must
guide the trainee to do the right exercises
suitably adjust the "weights"/cognitive load
encourage and support the trainee
make the trainee self-monitored and self-regulated
facilitator for learning
Abeysekera & Dawson, 2015
Flipped classroom might be just the right tool:
IE502014Topics in Artificial Intelligence (TAI)
7.5 ECTS credits (3.75 this presentation)
14 weekly 8-hour workshops
textbook: AI: A Modern Approach (AIMA), 3rd Ed., Russell & Norvig, 2010 (2013 reprint)
curriculum: AIMA Ch. 1-5
Fronter LMS: messages, forum, resources
online resources: EdX and CodinGame
3 compulsory assignments (must pass all)
final oral exam (100%)
Flipped classroom
outsource traditional lectures
more active learning activities in class
cycle of learning:
1. preparation
2. in-class activities
3. revision, repetition, in-depth
repeat steps 1-3
teacher-centred learning
student-centred learning
Active learning
transmission method dominates
must engage students!
key learning paradigms:
constructivism
collaborative learning
cooperative learning
peer-assisted learning
problem-based learning
teaching by telling...
...not very effective!
Effective for
deep learning
edX
MOOC founded by Harvard and MIT 2012
>110 worldwide partners
10 million users
free (pay for certificates)
high quality video lectures and self-tests -> immediate feedback, repetition
transcribed videos, easy to search
quizzes
multiple choice tests
short answers
CodinGame
2D game-like coding puzzles/challenges
single-player or multi-player
closely related to AI, intelligent agents (bots)
discretized input/output turn-based (loops) game simulation
completeness scores, ranking, levels, badges, competitions
25+ programming languages
also a recruiting platform
pre-semester: tell students to buy textbook, read study handbook entry
start of semester: course overview, potential oral exam questions, etc.
weekly:
preparation material
activity schedule
homework
Workshops
active, collaborative, student-centred
preparation vital for effective learning
always begins with plenary status/evaluation
micro presentations on topics
group work exercises
competitions (Kahoot, Socrative)
self-tests
video demonstrations
assignment work
discussion
problems in homework?
Status/evaluation
identify difficulties in homework or in general in course so far
leads to supplementary micro lectures and ad hoc planning of rest of workshop
teacher can adjust course direction early
ensures students are on track
notes can be used for course evaluation reports
Online edX AI course
must enrol in CS188x Artificial intelligence
course follows AIMA textbook closely
self-paced learning
rewatch videos, edited or uncut
self-tests in between videos to check learning
interactive demonstrations
step-by-step tutorials
self-monitoring/self-regulating learning
Self-tests
breaks up flow of videos
immediate feedback on understanding
gamification, wants to be be correct
reduces cognitive load
reinforces learning
enables "storage" into long-term memory
leads to discussions
CodinGame challenges
developing boilerplate framework is time-consuming!
entertaining, fun, engaging
compete against yourself and others
constructive learning
problem-solving
immediate visual feedback
relevant to course topics
leads to discussions
outsource to CodinGame
Problem-solving skills
many paths to solutions
many levels of difficulty
cycle of design process:
model, level of abstraction
implement algorithms
simulation, visualization, testing
analysis
re-iterate
Oral presentations
incentive to do homework
divide into groups of 2-3 students
short preparation time (5-20 mins)
smaller subtopics
clarifies what you know/don't know
teacher and fellow students fill in
reinforces learning from homework
leads to discussions
Textbook and exercises
video lectures makes textbook easier to understand
textbook exercises are time-consuming, do at home
teacher cherrypicks good exercises
selected problems or difficulties get discussed in class
Competitions in class
Kahoot or Socrative in class
Scores/rank in CodinGame
fun and engaging, want to improve/win
immediate feedback
shows how many understand a topic
breaks up workshop, good for cognitive load
leads to discussions
formal requirement at NTNU
reference group of students write report
teacher also writes own report
both reports publicly available
plenary evaluation discussion every workshop status, goods & bads, suggestions for improvements
take notes for final reports
enables ad hoc adjustments
Workload
overall appropriate workload...
...but maybe slightly bigger than in other courses
quite high workload for assignments...
...but students appreciate this as valuable
Flipped classroom
enthusiasm for workshop teaching format
micro lectures could benefit from slides (but difficult to know beforehand what students will struggle with from homework)
freedom of choice in learning pace and content
enables self-monitoring, self-regulation, control of learning
some poorly designed quiz questions online
enjoy gamification, competition
Assignments
consist of theory and coding problems
appropriate topics and problems aligned with curriculum
quite high workload
coding problems quite open-ended
students appreciate influence on assignment content (draft version is discussed in class, updated, finalized together with students)
appreciate detailed individual feedback
appreciate being compulsory
Other things
good structure, flow of information
Fronter forum useless, students meet in class/on campus anyway for face-to-face discussions
deadlines should be coordinated across courses
safe/relaxed learning environment
students eager to comment/complain about other courses or master programme in general
very useful feedback from students for improving courses and programme!
overall very high student satisfaction
several students: this is the best course they have taken
number of students (about 10 students is very little)
30-40+ students may require more teachers for effective workshops?
available online resources -this course we are lucky that such great content (edX, CodinGame) exists!
teacher must be able to cherrypick good material
Problem-based learning
Hattie (2013): 800 meta-analyses show no positive effect!
problem-based vs problem-solving learning
Hattie:
need well-designed case studies
avoid problem-based, student-centred, large problems with little guidance
warning: too rigid step-by-step instructions also not good, less creativity, less challenging, less reflection
tradeoff: spoon-feeding vs open-ended
C-4 Dynamite
four key factors for effective, deep learning:
creativity
cooperation
competition
challenge
Conclusions
Teacher should adopt a role as a
much like working out at the gym: students must do the hard work, not the instructor
good facilitation is vital
must carefully cherrypick all course resources
align learning activities with ILOs and assessment
facilitator for learning
use other's great material!
-- if it exists...
Full transcript