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10B Review L4-L7

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Liz Miller

on 21 November 2017

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Transcript of 10B Review L4-L7

10B Review L4-L7
Sganarelle, Melodrama, Pygmalion
The Six Elements of Tragedy
- first a linear plot, which uses a single storyline that builds to a climax; or a episodic plot, which consists of a series of subplots that do not build like rising action.
Clear Beginning
(Introduction or Exposition),
(Rising Action, Climax or Falling Action, or distinct episodes) and
(Conclusion or Resolution)
Round Characters
: developed with complex personalities and usually some type of development or change that occurs.
Flat Characters (Stock Characters):
not as developed or complex and present a single personality that does not change over time.
- message that the playwright wants to convey:
applies to different people in different circumstances.
is individual with a distinction that separates it from other works.
use subtlety to reveal the theme rather than beating you over the head with it.
- words and language that are used
Music -
background music that supports and sometimes even develops the plot and thought + chorus in Greek times
- visual elements of a play — the set design, costumes, props, lighting effect, etc.
Opera is Italy’s only original contribution to theater and integrates all 6 elements.
The Renaissance and Aristotle
Aristotle’s Poetics
: Aristotle’s great work on poetry and a drama, which, after being translated into Latin in 1498, influenced the development of Western Theater.
"tragedy imitates the better, while comedy imitates the worse"
Plays should be written and acted with 'passion.'
Three Unities of the Renaissance
1. Action
2. Time
3. Place
Italy and Commedia Dell’Arte
City-states' wealthy created the theaters
Commedia Erudita
(cultured theater) were scripts based on the writings of famous Roman playwrights, most were poorly written and dull, actors were usually amateurs

comic satires given between acts of the main drama.

Commedia Dell’Arte:
“comedy of professional artists,” had no theater building, fancy costumes, spectacular set, or special effects, depended on the skills of the professional performers. 12-15 men AND/OR women

Stock characters:
Flat characters that are archetypal such as the old miser, the brave hero, the lover, or zanni (comic servant)

Theater in Spain and France
Lope de Vega
— who was a Spanish playwright, actor, and theater manager. Wrote around 1,800 plays, 750 survived, and 88 masterpieces: focused on honor and social responsibility:

(The Sheepfold) portrays a revolt by villagers against their noble leader after the man sexually assaults some women

— of whose plays more than two hundred survive. Although Calderón wrote plays in the various genres, he is most well-known for his
auto sacrementales
, or religious allegories.

Most famous work is
La vida es sueño
(Life is a Dream), which focuses on themes including predestination and the idea that real life is what happens in eternity, after one dies.

Plays were performed in
corrales de comedias
or nobelmen's courtyards.
Introduction to Molière
King Louis
XIV contribute to French theater created

Followed the central principle that governed theater in France:

was the form to reveal the consequences of criminal acts or uncontrolled passion,
was for ridiculing improper conduct or behavior, such as hypocrisy and pretension.

plays emphasized complex plots with simple characters.

Jean Racine’s:
plays had characters who were controlled by passion and inner struggles.

(Jean Baptiste Poquelin)
playwright but also an actor and company manager considered the greatest European writer of theatrical comedies. Used elements from the
combined with the six principal elements of Aristotle and the three unities. Molière faced opposition from his critics - usually because his criticism hit too close to home. Though modern enough to still be played today.

The main plot is a common one in Commedia Dell’Arte — a man who believes his wife is cheating on him

One key characteristic of French drama is its
: a string of continuous action in a fixed location moved forward by fast-paced dialogue.

The French scene:
Without any clear separation in the action and only one setting, playwrights needed a new means of dividing the play into smaller elements: The scene changes whenever a character enters or exits.

” refers to a husband whose wife is having an affair with another man.
The original telanovela
Gorgibus is forcing his daughter Célia to marry the wealthy Valère, but she is in love with Lélio and he with her.
Célia, in distress at her impending marriage to Valère, faints in the street, and Sganarelle, who is passing by, attempts to revive her.
Célia loses her miniature portrait of Lélio which ends up in the hands of Sganarelle and his wife.
These 2 events set off a series of mistaken assumptions and quarreling:
Sganarelle's wife believes that he and Célia are lovers;
Sganarelle believes that Lélio and his wife are lovers;
Célia believes that Lélio and Sganarelle's wife are lovers;
Lélio believes that Célia has secretly married Sganarelle.
Célia's governess helps sort out the confusion
Villebrequin arrives with the surprise news that four months ago his son Valère had secretly married someone else. Célia and Lélio are now free to marry.
Commedia Dell’Arte stock characters
List the key commedia dell'arte stock characters and their characteristics?
The Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
: valued reason over passion, clear thinking, logic, empiricism, moderation in thought, and a focus on human- centered activities.

— from the emotions of lovers to the distress of those facing disaster — was either ignored or made trivial and/or laughable
Goethe and the Sturm und Drang Movement

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) considered the
Three Unities an “oppressive prison.”
To Goethe,
Shakespeare’s depictions of life were much closer to reality
than those of the Neoclassical writers.

Johann Goethe’s first play, produced in 1773
, was modeled after Shakespeare’s plays. It relates
the life of a German “Robin Hood” named
Götz von Berlichingen,
who fights against dishonest
nobles to defend national honor. At the end of the play, Götz is captured and dies in prison. With
his last breath, he exclaims
“Freiheit!” (“Freedom”), though he knows that he has lost and the
dishonest nobles have won.

Similar to Lope de Vega’s Fuenteovejuna,
the play addresses a social
problem, but, dissimilarly, the hero fails.
Breaks Neoclassical traditions with a plot that spans ten years and combines both serious and comic characters in a series of fast moving scenes.

Friedrich von Klinger,
wrote a
constructed play in 1776
whose only claim to fame was that it g
ave a name to the literary
: St
urm und Drang (Storm and Stress).
Romanticism and Melodrama
rebelled against the ideologies of Classicism - not because they focused on romantic love, but because they
were idealists
. Romantic writers used their work as relief from the world’s troubles, often focusing on the
joy and beauty of nature, the power of human feeling, and the escapism of the fantastic and the supernatural.

Victor Hugo
broke neoclassical rules of play writing.

is about a young leader of an outlaw band whose adventures bring death, but in the end peace between the enemies. It mixed comedy and tragedy, showed death on the stage, and used language not acceptable for tragedy, was unique and innovative

Character development gave way to plot development and exaggerated actions that would elicit audience reactions.
Actors focused more on presenting themselves at their best rather than presenting the character.
and the French Revolution
Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais: Famous for two plays: The Barber of Seville, and The Marriage of Figaro. Use Commedia Dell’Arte style comedy with a twist.

"The Barber of Seville" follows
Figaro an itinerant barber that helps Count Almaviva, who has fallen in love with a young lady named Rosine. Unfortunately, the girl’s guardian, Sr. Bartolo, wants to marry her himself. Through Figaro’s careful planning, Almaviva, in disguise, is able to enter Bartolo’s house various times to meet with Rosine. The play ends with the announcement that Almaviva and Rosine will be married. Figaro succeeded —
the lower-class hero has outclassed the upper class
. In
"The Marriage of Figaro"
it follows the story after the last play.
Rosine is now the countess; however, her life is not the fairytale romance she had expected
Almaviva has grown tired of fidelity and wants to have affairs
with other women. One of these is Suzanne, to whom Figaro is engaged. Interestingly, Suzanne and Rosine are the true heroes of the play. It is their plans that defeat Almaviva’s intended sexual exploits and return order to the world.
Romantic Period:
writers focused on the situation of the lower classes and everyday experiences.

Charles Dickens
of England wrote
Oliver Twist, Great Expectations
A Christmas Carol
focused on the suffering of the poor to raise social awareness of the problems and push for reform.

Victor Hugo
of France wrote
Les Miserables
The Hunchback of Notre Dame
focused on the lower classes.
Romantic Period, writers began focusing on the situation of the lower classes.

French philosopher
Auguste Comte
"father of Sociology," the scientific study of society, produced a 4-volume work entitled
System of Positive Polity -
theorized that the way to reform society was through

— applying scientific methodology to society and establishing theories based on direct observation.

had come to the theater with lifelike costumes, sets, and subjects.
1) plays became stories about the ordinary man who lived in an ordinary environment, dealing with the struggles of everyday life
2) plays that questioned the values and morals of its middle-class audience or discussed issues that people preferred to ignore.

Henrik Ibsen
Norwegian “father of realism” and “father of modern drama” in theater. Realistic stories that championed woman's causes, believed plays should change people and social and moral values. Many theatres would not produce Ibsen’s plays because of their controversial topics.
A Doll’s House
tells the story of a wife who feels oppressed by her husband and ultimately abandons her family.
Realism in Russia
Anton Chekhov-
Russian playwright who wrote realistic plays about real people in real situations. His characters are usually middle-to-upper class people who aspire to a better life, but do not achieve their goals.

— they combine laughter with tears, witty comments with serious dialogue, and, although there is usually an element of hope, the ending is far from happy.

The Seagull
examines the lives of a group of characters who are dissatisfied with their lives. Some of them seek love (a few are having secret affairs), while others seek success. In the final act, one of the lead characters shoots himself because he is unable to achieve his dreams. It was such a failure Chekhov considered giving up writing. The problem was that Russian actors followed the melodramatic style. A different acting method had to be created.

Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko and Konstantin Stanislavsky
, founded the
Moscow Art Theatre
in 1898.
Stanislavsky wanted actors to feel the emotions of the character, depended on the character’s mental and emotional states and the subtleties of the language, thus Chekhov’s plays became successful in the Moscow Art Theatre.
Victorian Society
brought with it a
growing middle class
whose increase in numbers had a significant effect on the
social strata itself: cultural norms, lifestyle, values and moralit

In the Victorian era, English family life increasingly became compartmentalized, the home a self-contained structure housing
a nuclear family
extended according to need and circumstance to include blood relations.

became a hallmark of the middle class life. Bourgeois existence was a world of interior space, heavily curtained off and wary of intrusion, and opened only by invitation for viewing on occasions such as parties or teas.

Victorian Britain
, like the periods before it, was interested in literature, theater and the arts. Music, drama, and opera were widely attended.

Victorian Period
writers of this period deliberately mock the hypocrisy and quirks of society, and while they demonstrate their ideas with humor, there are also serious themes of disillusionment and a growing sense of pessimism.

Many novelists and authors used literature as a way to provide social commentary about the changing times.
Introduction to Pygmalion

In traditional theater, a
develops a conflict that stands in the way of the characters’ happiness or success, but everything comes out happy in the end. There is an
exposition, establishing the characters, the setting, the situation; a complication, when the problem develops; and a “happily-ever-after” resolution.

Shaw’s approach reverses the traditional plot.
Rather than resolving the conflict as the audience would expect, Shaw fixes the situation in unanticipated ways. He believed theater should “force the spectator to face unpleasant facts.”

Shaw’s characters create the humor
. Shaw’s major characters are
round characters with
flaws, but they also discuss with others the ideas that motivate their actions: learn about injustices and struggle to improve their conditions, and change themselves. The minor characters are
flat characters, who
do not usually change through the course of the play.

Stage directions
, the author’s instructions about how a character should look, move, speak, and behave. Shows how Shaw views the characters and the social conventions they represent.
Pygmalion and Galatea:
According to Greek legend, Pygmalion fell in love with a statue that he had sculpted. Inspired by his prayers, Venus, the goddess of love, brought Pygmalion’s statue to life, and they were married. Shaw’s audience expected a happy ending to this “Romance in Five Acts.”

He ends his plays with what he called “
the discussion
,” when the different sides of the issue are presented. An objective examination of the characters and their situations no right or wrong.

In the
we learn that Eliza Doolittle does, in fact, marry Freddy, and the couple struggles to find their way as the owners of a flower shop. Not the “happily-ever-after” ending that an audience would likely expect from a romance. In this way, Shaw
uses irony
to highlight the illusion of social customs and the
stark difference between appearance and reality
. Pygmalion is a
satire that mocks Victorian social convention, as well as the unrealistic love stories
often celebrated in the theater. In these ways,
Pygmalion embodies modernism
in the twentieth century.
George Bernard Shaw: best- known for Pygmalion.
a form of speech characteristic of a particular class that differs from the standard language), the classes of society instantly typed themselves through their dialects.
The speech lessons and Higgins’s insistence that language is the key to societal differences highlight this attitude.
typically represents an oversimplified view of a certain race, group, social class, gender, or occupation.
an image, story-line, or character type that have a recurring pattern and establish meaning for the audience. Typical archetypal characters include a hero, mentor, trickster, and villain.
“Polite society”
is Shaw’s phrase for the snobbish aristocracy.
Mrs. Eynsford Hill
best represents this group.
Alfred Doolittle
, Liza’s father, is the epitome of the poorest class of society. He also
adds comic relief
to the seriousness of Liza’s plea for Higgins to help her improve her life.
Eliza (archetype object of creation and orphan):
independent, dressed in rags, loudly uses an East London “
y” accent.
Higgins (the archetype creator/artist):
agrees, because he will not refuse a challenge. Higgins believes that people in positions of power can shape a person’s life, although his motivation for helping Liza is not selfless. Higgins takes the challenge primarily as a product of his own ego.
Pickering (archetype caregiver, wish giver, fairy godmother)
, while also surprisingly dense about Liza’s feelings,
to Higgins, a character that contrasts another character, highlighting flaws in the main character’s personality.
In this case,
Pickering’s kind treatment of Liza and his sincere remorse for disregarding her feelings emphasizes Higgins’ self-absorption and often cruel and childish behavior.

Eliza Doolittle (Liza):
Cockney flower girl who asks Professor Higgins to help her learn to become a lady
Henry Higgins:
Professor and expert in phonetics who trains Eliza Doolittle in language and tries to pass her off as a duchess.
Colonel Pickering:
Gentleman and friend of Higgins; participates in the bet with Higgins about Eliza’s transformation
Mrs. Eynsford Hill:
a woman of polite society
Frederick Eynsford Hill (Freddy):
son of Mrs. Eynsford Hill, infatuated with Eliza
Clara Eynsford Hill:
daughter of Mrs. Eynsford Hill, a socialite
Mrs. Pearce:
Higgins’ housekeeper;
Alfred Doolittle:
Eliza’s father; a drunk and degenerate
Mrs. Higgins:
Higgins’ mother; a gracious woman of means
Aristid Karpathy:
Higgins’ first student of phonetics

Character List
Eliza Doolittle (Liza):
Cockney flower girl who asks Professor Higgins to help her learn to become a lady
Henry Higgins:
Professor and expert in phonetics who trains Eliza Doolittle in language and tries to pass her off as a duchess.
Colonel Pickering:
Gentleman and friend of Higgins; participates in the bet with Higgins about Eliza’s transformation
Mrs. Eynsford Hill:
a woman of polite society
Frederick Eynsford Hill (Freddy):
son of Mrs. Eynsford Hill, infatuated with Eliza
Clara Eynsford Hill:
daughter of Mrs. Eynsford Hill, a socialite
Mrs. Pearce:
Higgins’ housekeeper;
Alfred Doolittle:
Eliza’s father; a drunk and degenerate
Mrs. Higgins:
Higgins’ mother; a gracious woman of means
Aristid Karpathy:
Higgins’ first student of phonetics

Character List
Language and Speech
Appearance and Identity
Social Class and Manners
Education and Intelligence
Femininity and Gender Roles
Act I
1) What event triggers Eliza’s anger in the street? How does she respond?
2) How do Freddy’s mother and the gentleman in the suit treat Eliza?
3) How does Henry Higgins treat Eliza when he first meets her?
4) How does the crowd react to Henry Higgins when he starts telling them which neighborhood they live in?
5) What is Henry Higgins’ profession?
6) What does Henry Higgins bet he could do with Eliza after training her?
7) Who does Henry Higgins leave with at the end of Act I?
8) What does Eliza do with the money that Henry Higgins throws into her basket?
Act II
1) How do Henry Higgins and Eliza Doolittle symbolize gender and class differences?
2) Why does Eliza show up at Henry Higgins house?
3) How does Henry Higgins respond when he first sees Eliza?
4) Who offers to pay for Eliza’s lessons and why?
5) How does Henry Higgin treat Eliza after he agrees to give her lessons?
6) What does Henry Higgins say they should do with her when they’ve finished with her?
7) How does Eliza respond when she is told to have a bath?
8) Why does Eliza’s father, Alfred, show up at Henry Higgins home? What does he say he wants and what does he actually want?
9) Who does Henry Higgins decide to test Eliza’s progress on?

1) How does Eliza represent a female character in comparison to Natalia in Chekhov’s
The Marriage Proposal?
2) How does Henry’s mother react when she sees him?
3) What two subjects is Eliza only allowed to speak about?
4) How does Henry’s mother react when she sees him?
5) What does Eliza bring up, causing the other guests to become uncomfortable?
6) What is Pickering’s reaction to the failed attempt to pass Eliza as a ‘lady’? What is Higgins reaction?
7) Who comes calling for Eliza multiple times while she works with Henry Higgins?

Act V
1) What does Eliza realize when she runs into the flower girl at the square?
2) What is Higgins attitude and behavior when he realizes Eliza is gone?
3) Where did Eliza go for help after she left Henry Higgins’ home?
4) What credit does Eliza give Colonel Pickering regarding her transformation?
5) What does Eliza believe Henry Higgins will always view her as?
6) How has Mr. Doolittle changed from the beginning of the film to the end?
7) Who causes Eliza to revert to cockney speech and why?
8) Summarize Eliza and Higgins final argument.
9) Why does Higgins called Eliza his “masterpiece”?
10) At the end of the film, who does Eliza end up going back to?
11) Do you think Eliza and Henry will marry? Would Eliza and Henry Higgins be able to make a romantic relationship work? Consider the social and gender issues that have emerged throughout the film.

Epilogue from Pygmalion
1) What do you think of his assessment of Eliza?
2) What commentary is he trying to make about society?
3) According to Shaw, why is Eliza free NOT to marry Higgins? Do you agree? Why or why not?
4) According to Shaw, why is Higgins a confirmed old bachelor? Do you agree with his assertion about Higgins’ mother? Why or why not?
5) According to Shaw, why does Eliza marry Freddy? Do you agree with this? Why or why not?
6) What are your impressions of the way life has turned out for Eliza? What is the significance of each of the following characters to her: Freddy, Henry Higgins, and the Colonel?
7) Based on the film and the epilogue, what does Shaw communicate about how Victorian society illustrates the roles of men and women? Consider each of the major and minor characters in your response.

Character Profile
1) What are your overall impression of the characters in Pygmalion?
2) Character’s Thoughts (What’s on his/her mind?)
3) Character’s Feelings/Emotions (heart)
4) What important quotes or advice would he/she utter? (Mouth)
5) What lies beneath the character’s feet? What does he/she stamp or tread on? (oppress)
6) What is your character blind to or refuse to see? (behind their eyes)
7) What gives your character strength?
8) What goes “in one ear and out the other” for your character? (refuse to listen to)
9) What gets “in your character’s hair”? (bothers him/her)
10) What sits “in the pit of your character’s stomach”? (worries)
11) What sends a “shiver up your character’s spine”? (fears)
12) What is your character’s “Achilles heel”? (area of weakness)
13) What would the character “cross his/her fingers for”? (what would he/she wish for)

1) What themes were prevalent in the Victorian era theater?
2) What was the hallmark of the English middle class life in the era of Shaw?
3) What does Shaw hope the audience will be forced to do with his plays?
4) Does Shaw believe there is a right or wrong moral in his plays? Explain.
5) What overall themes does Shaw hope the audience will see with Pygmalion?
6) Explain the literary devices used in the play and their significance?
7) Explain the role stereotypes play in this work.
8) Explain the round and flat characters in the work.
9) What are some of the flaws of the characters?
10) Higgins represents what archetype character?
11) What is Colonel Pickering and Higgins bet?
12) Why does Higgins except the challenge?
13) What brings Eliza to the attention of these gentlemen and make her an integral part of the bet?
14) Why does Alfred come after his daughter?
15) Who calls on Eliza?
16) How does Eliza's suitor's family feel about her?
17) How is Eliza treated throughout the play?
18) What does Eliza do with her money at the end and why?
1) At the ball, why is Pickering concerned about Higgin’s first pupil, Aristid Karpathy?
2) How does Her Excellency respond when Eliza introduces herself?
3) At the ball, what does Aristid Karpathy assume about Eliza?
4) How do Higgins and Pickering feel when returning from the ball?
5) How does Eliza feel?
6) When Eliza asks what is to become of her, how does Higgins respond?
7) What causes Higgins to lose his temper with Eliza?
8) Who do you feel is being more unreasonable, Eliza or Professor Higgins? Why?
Who does each character in Sganarelle represent and why?
1) What plays did we read that had the three unities of Renaissance?
2) What is the only type of theater to use all 6 elements of tragedy?
3) Who developed the elements of tragedy and where?
4) What did romantics focus on?
5) What was commedia dell'arte?
6) How did actors of Commedia Dell'art differ from other actors? What was their acting process?
7) How did melodrama change the role of actors?
8) Who was Victor Hugo and why was he important?
9) What is Commedia Erudita?
10) What are stock characters?
11) How do stock characters and archetypes differ?
12) Give some examples of stock characters and archetypes.
1) What is auto sacrementales?
2) Why did Spanish theater never become as popular as French theather?
3) What were corrales de comedias?
4) What style of theater did Pierre Beaumarchais use?
5) What were the famous works of Pierre and give a summary?
6) What were the famous works of Lope de Vega and give a summary?
7) What was the Age of Enlightenment?
8) What work did we read from the Age of Enlightenment?
9) What are pathos and how did they effect theater?
10) Where were theaters often performed in Spain and France before public theaters?
Snagarelle or The Imaginary Cuckold
1) What was Comedie-Francaise?
2) Who were the top 3 french playwrights and what were their styles?
3) Summarize Snagarelle?
4) What is the theme of Snagarelle?
5) What was the French scene?
6) What did fluidity mean in theater?
7) Who is the smartest person in Snagarelle and which Commedia Dell'arte character does she represent?
8) Which Commedia Dell'Arte characters does each character in Snagarelle represent and why?
Possible Essays:
Compare and Contrast
Expository Essay
Persuasive Essay
1) While Eliza Doolittle is being remade, Victorian society itself can be said to be unmade. How does Shaw reveal the pruderies, hypocrisies, and inconsistencies of this higher society to which the kerbstone flower girl aspires? Do his sympathies lie with the lower or upper classes?
2) What is the Pygmalion myth? In what significant ways, and with what effect, has Shaw transformed that myth in his play?
3) Higgins claims that he treats everyone equally, that he does not change his behavior under different circumstances. That said, does Higgins himself change over the course of the play?
4) How is phonetics related to manners in all of the acts?
5) What is the dramatic function of the Eynsford-Hill family in the first act?

6) How might Alfred Doolittle be considered extraneous to the play? How would the play be different if his part were left out of a production?
7) How does Doolittle's change in social position reflect on Eliza's transformation?
8) How are Mrs. Pearce and Mrs. Higgins more alike than is Eliza to each of these ladies? How is she similar to each of them?
9) Explain the numerous intentional violations of manners on Higgins' part. At the end of the play, how can we tolerate the fact that Higgins calls Eliza a "damned impudent slut"?
10) Who should be given the most credit for Eliza's transformation from a flower girl into a duchess? Could either Eliza or Higgins have accomplished this feat without the other?
11) Why do you think that Higgins and Eliza should never marry? Or do you think that they should marry? Explain.
characters in a melodrama are usually stereotypes
: oversimplified views of certain races, groups, social classes, genders, or occupations. In this sense, they are very similar to the stock characters of Commedia Dell-Arte.

archetype is an image, story-line, or character type that has a recurring pattern
and establishes meaning for the audience. Such as the artist, orphan, or fairy godmother. They can also be personifications of ideals.

Example: The Wizard of Oz, for example. The heroine, Dorothy, represents innocence, while her Aunt Em represents love.
Dorothy’s three companions in Oz — the Scarecrow, the Tinman, and the Lion — represent knowledge, valor, and courage, respectively. In addition, the
protagonist (hero)
antagonist (nemesis)
are often binary opposites. These are characters or concepts that are exactly contrary to each other. Examples of binary opposites are black and white, good and evil, love and hate, war and peace, etc.
The plots of melodramas are simple and tend to arise from unlikely, or even absurd, situations. A melodramatic plot consists of three elements:
an action by the nemesis that begins the conflict
a situation that the hero must overcome (often saving his lady love)
the defeat of the nemesis and the hero’s success
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