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What is an atom?
Transcript of What is an atom?
Around the science block there will be questions, about atoms and things on this presentation.
You need to get into pairs or 3's and collect the sheet to answer on.
There are 15 questions and you have 20 minutes to complete all.
The pair or 3 with the most answers correct get a 1 + sims each.
Periodic Table Groups
What have you learnt?
To understand what an atom is and its purpose.
Albert Einstein: The Size and Existence of Atoms
Parts of an atom
The New Periodic Table Song
Starter - Complete wordsearch
Periodic Table Symbols
An element consists of only one type of atom and it is found on the periodic table.
1. It's in the middle of the atom.
2. It contains protons and neutrons.
3. Protons are positively charged.
4. Neutrons have no charge (they're neutral)
5. So the nucleus has a positive charge overall because of the protons.
6. But size-wise it's tiny compared to the rest of the atom.
1. Move around the nucleus.
2. They're negatively charged.
3. They're tiny, but they cover a lot of space.
4. They occupy shells around the nucleus.
5. These shells explain the whole of Chemistry.
Atoms are the building blocks of everything in the world and tiny, they can only be seen on a microscope.
Atoms contain Protons, Electrons and a Nucleus.
Electron shell rules:
1. Electrons always occupy shells.
2. The lowest energy levels are always filled first, these are the ones closest to the nucleus.
3. Only a certain number of electrons are allowed in each shell: 1st Shell - 2 2nd Shell - 8 3rd Shell - 8
4. Atoms are much happier when they have full electron shells, like in noble gases in Group 0.
5. In most atoms the outer shell is not full and this makes the atom want to react to fill it.
The number of protons equals the number of electrons. If some electrons are added or removed, the atom becomes charged and is then an ion.
All of the elements in a group have similar properties, if you know the properties of one element, you can predict properties of other elements in that group.
The Group 1 elements are Li,
Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr, they're all metals and they react in the same way. The elements in the final column (Group 0) are the noble gases, they all have eight electrons in their outer shells, apart from helium. This means that they're stable and unreactive.
The periodic table is laid out so that elements with similar properties form columns.
Currently there are 118 elements known
If you want to find the number of neutrons in an atom, just subtract the atomic number from the mass number.
The bottom number is the atomic number and this is the number of protons, which conveniently also tells you the number of electrons.
The top number is the mass number and this is the total number of protons and neutrons
Atoms of each element can be represented by a one or two letter symbol, it's a type of shorthand that saves you the bother of having to write the full name of the element.
Some make sense:
e.g. C = Carbon O = Oxygen Mg = Magnesium
e.g Na = Sodium Fe = Iron Pb = Lead
Most of these odd symbols actually come from the Latin names of the elements.
All will be able to identify more than
5 elements from the periodic table.
Most will be able to describe the
components of an atom.
Some will be able to explain the
difference between an ion and an atom.