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Jason Oosting

on 10 September 2013

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Transcript of WWI

Causes of World War I

The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy
Alliance System
Huge Empires
Countries need to defend empires
Each nation wanted its armed forces to be stronger than their potential enemies
Strongest nation in Europe
Army reserve system
Pumped up Navy
Freaked out England
France, Italy, Japan, USA joined in Navy race
European nations signed treaties of assistance
Committed to support each other if attacked
Provided a measure of international security
Nations reluctant to disturb the balance of power
Extending the rule of an empire over other countries/ acquiring colonies.
Belief that national interest and national unity should be placed ahead of global cooperation and that foreign affairs should be guided by national self-interest.
Ethnic groups resented domination by others
Wanted nations of their own
Poland divided by Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary
Czechs & Slavs hated the Austria-Hungarian Empire
The Spark: June 28, 1914
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Gavrilo Princip
Member of the Black Hand
Serbian separatists
Fighting Starts
August 4, 1914
Germany follows the Schlieffen Plan:
Holding action vs. Russia with a quick drive through Belgium towards Paris
Once France falls, 2 German armies would defeat Russia
G.B. & France couldn't stop Germans in Belgium
They DID stop them before they got to Paris at the Battle of the Marne
Spring 1915
Two lines of trenches
300 miles long
Belgium to Switzerland
The Eastern Front
Russians and Serbs battled Austrians, Turks, and Germans
Russia defeated by Germany at Tannenberg and were steadily driven east
Serious shortages – only had manpower and thousands died
The Ottoman Front
First campaign (Gallipoli) a disaster for the Allies
British more successful because they organized Arab nationalists in the Middle East
Arabs eager to revolt against the Ottoman Empire and wanted their own countries
Allied Italy diverted Austrians from the Western and Eastern Fronts
Weakness in Russia:
1917: Russia lost more men than in the last 300 years of fighting
Russia had serious shortages and the army felt betrayed by its leaders
People were also unhappy with the government
Russian Revolution: March 1917

March 1918: the Russians and Germans signed the
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
to end the Russian involvement in the war
Most countries in the war called on all men 20-40 to serve in the war
Women replaced the men in factories, offices, farms, and shops
Worked in traditional male roles
Wartime economies:
Governments forced to ration out goods in short supply
Governments told factories and businesses what to produce and how much
One-sided information that aims to convince people of a certain point of view
Governments controlled the news
Governments tried to keep up a fighting spirit
New Weapons
Medical Care
Soldiers suffered from:
Trench foot
Shell shock
Red Cross tended to wounded and ill
Full transcript