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Hydroelectricity

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Jenny Lin

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity
Jenny Lin & Jen Gomes
Turbines
Where is this abundant?
Turbines use electromagnetic induction, which is the result of voltage going across a conductor and is exposed to a changing magnetic field.

In Hydroelectric Power...

Water flows in through the dam tunnels from a reservoir and causes turbines to turn.
Results in increase of KE that is transferred into mechanical power.
Generators
A turbine is a device that rotates because of the flow of a fluid, usually water, steam, or air. The turbine will turn and cause other devices to react.
Generators are machines that convert mechanical energy into electricity to serve as a power source for other machines.
Though electromagnetic induction, a generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by voltage so the electrons flow in a current.
There are electromagnets in a generator that rotate, because of the turbine. The magnets move electrons in an alternating current so electrons are pushed out, creating electricity.

In Hydroelectric Power...

When the turbines turn, they make the generators move and it creates the energy.
Is it Easy to Create?
Is it Safe to Extract?
Is it Expensive?
Other Benefits
Is it sustainable for more than 100 years?
Transformers
A Transformer is .........
Transformers use electromagnetism by transferring power that has high voltage and low voltage in a circuit and continually alternating the direction in which it flows.
Hydroelectricity powers transformers through generators which create electricity for the transformers to function.
What is Hydroelectricity?
Hydroelectricity is energy produced by moving water, usually a river. To harness this energy, water has to flow through a hydroelectric power plant, passing through turbines-which power generators, creating electricity- and returning to the water source.
... a device that uses induction to convert different types of current in one circuit to different types of voltage and current in another circuit.
It is relatively easy to create hydroelectric power.
The energy source is from running water.
Considering the earth is more than 70% water, harnessing the power in a hydroelectric power plant is easy.
Anywhere that water is built up; there is the potential for hydroelectric power to be used.
When creating hydroelectric power, it is fairly safe. There is nothing being burned so there isn’t a very large possibility of explosions or toxic gases.
For humans...
Hydroelectric power is safe, both for the short term and the long term.
It improves the hygiene, education, and employment opportunities in a community.
The only dangerous factor in hydroelectric power is the possibility of floods of entire towns because of excess water in a reservoir. This can be easily avoided though.
For our culture...
It is safe by not tampering with the environment in a negative way.
Hydroelectric Power is renewable and won’t affect any traditions.
There is a small loss of space for the reservoirs but the power plants are built on the actual river, so nothing is drastically changed.
For our environment...
It is extremely safe for the environment.
Hydroelectric power is renewable and involves water, which has a renewable cycle in returning to the earth.
There is no waste or pollution produced
Hydroelectric power is an affordable energy source. It comes from the earth but is renewable and recyclable. The building of the power plant and dam can be very costly to a community, but once the dam and power plant are built, the water is practically free so everything is paid back.
By creating this energy source, you barely affect the environment around you.
The water used is in a cycle and there will never be a shortage of water.
The power plants can increase to full power very quickly and is always ready to use.
Hydroelectric power is carbon-free and climate-friendly.
It does not produce air pollution or create any toxic side-effects.
How does it Work?
Harness the water by building dam to create a reservoir
Water travels through the dam tunnels
Tunnels lead the water to turbines
When the water gets there it turns the blades of the turbine
Turbine moves a generator to make electricity
Water exits back into the river below and the electricity is sent into power lines
The Picote Dam, Portugal
Reservoir
Return to the river
This process can be sustainable for more than 100 years.
The world will never run out of water so the energy source will always be present.
But in the event where there is no longer water on the earth, there will be no life that can be sustained. Henceforth there won’t be a need for power.
This resource is abundant in nearly every region.
South America is one of the most abundant regions of rivers.
In the US hydro power is found all over.
The east and west coasts are the most abundant.
Compare and Contrast
Coal
Geothermal Energy
Coal
Coal needs to be dug up from the earth using lots of equipment and money which makes it difficult to extract.
Coal can be recreated but the process will take millions of years to form again and unfortunately, people are using coal more than it can produce.
Extracting coal is very dangerous.
Mine wall failures and vehicle collisions; underground mining hazards include suffocation, gas poisoning, roof collapse and gas explosions.
According to history, over 100,000 miners have died in the past century.
For humans...
Heavy work load leads to painful back problems and lung diseases. The risk of the general mining hazards make mining very harmful to humans.
For culture...
Mining will cause the loss of open spaces and the lack of plants or wildlife habitats.
For the environment...
Coal causes pollution in the air that will cause global warming and extinction for specific animals.
The cost to mine coal has been increasingly rising every year.
Study says that in 2011 it was estimated that the cost of coal was up to $500 billion in the US alone.
Mining coal has created jobs for people since it was first found.
If people continue to use coal for another 100 years there will be one day where there will be no more coal.
Coal is one of America’s most abundant domestically produced energy sources. Currently, coal is mined in 26 of the 50 states.
Geothermal Energy
Geothermal energy is easy to extract because it uses heat pumps to extract it.
Geothermal energy (hot water and steam) is usually used to produce electricity.
Electricity is dangerous if misused, but it is usually safe.
For Humans...
Provides electricity & it doesn't produce greenhouse gases.
However it has dangers too, so must be well controlled
For culture...
Hot springs have been used for bathing since the paleolithic times and for attractions.
For the environment...
Geothermal energy, like all renewable energy, emits no pollution or greenhouse gases, so, compared to fossil fuel energy, is good for the environment.
Drilling accounts for over half the costs, and exploration of deep resources entails significant risks. In total, electrical plant construction and well drilling cost about $2.6 million-$6.5 million per MW of electrical capacity
It does not harm the earth and is eco-friendly.
People have been using geothermal energy for a very long time. So unless all of a sudden the earth stopped giving off heat only then would it not be sustainable.
It is most abundant in the United States because of the large amounts of tectonic plates.
Like Hydroelectric Power, Geothermal Energy is renewable. The difference between the two is that hydroelectric power is much less costly than geothermal energy.
Hydroelectric Power and Coal Energy are greatly different. Hydroelectric Energy is renewable and cheap where Coal Energy is terrible for the environment and costly. Coal is very dangerous and many people die.
Thanks for Watching!!!!!!!!!!!!

and remember, Hydroelectric power is AWESOME!!!
Pros and Cons of Hydroelectricity
PROS
Renewable Energy Source
Accounts for 90% of all electricity from renewable resources in the U.S.
It is carbon-free and environmentally friendly
Low-cost compared to other energy sources
Water used is never ending and is always present
Regular flow of electricity
Creates wildlife conservation lands, stable habitat for wildlife, healthy fisheries, water supply, controlled floods, irrigated land for food production, and recreational opportunities for millions of Americans.
CONS
Possibility of flooding
Danger of reservoir dam breaking
The right place for a reservoir
Takes many years to build
Fish cannot swim upstream
Very evidently, Hydroelectric Power has more pros than cons, making it a great contribution to the variety of energy sources. But looking at the big picture, Hydroelectric Power is one of the best energy sources available.
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